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Aniston has been on the Forbes Celebrity list, based on "earnings and fame", every year since , topping the list in Inside the effort to protect the elderly Perhaps no other population is as vulnerable during a hurricane as older adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. As a child, Aniston moved to New York City. Genetically modified mosquitoes could eradicate malaria Since only female mosquitoes bite and transmit malaria, these lab-grown sterile male insects will not be able to multiply or spread the disease. Retrieved June 18, Retrieved December 13,
In undeveloped countries the ability to afford food, high energy expenditure with physical labor, and cultural values favoring a larger body size are believed to contribute to the observed patterns. A correlation in BMI changes over time has been found among friends, siblings, and spouses. Smoking has a significant effect on an individual's weight. Those who quit smoking gain an average of 4.
In the United States the number of children a person has is related to their risk of obesity. In the developing world urbanization is playing a role in increasing rate of obesity. Malnutrition in early life is believed to play a role in the rising rates of obesity in the developing world. Consistent with cognitive epidemiological data, numerous studies confirm that obesity is associated with cognitive deficits. The study of the effect of infectious agents on metabolism is still in its early stages.
Gut flora has been shown to differ between lean and obese humans. There is an indication that gut flora in obese and lean individuals can affect the metabolic potential. This apparent alteration of the metabolic potential is believed to confer a greater capacity to harvest energy contributing to obesity.
Whether these differences are the direct cause or the result of obesity has yet to be determined unequivocally. An association between viruses and obesity has been found in humans and several different animal species. The amount that these associations may have contributed to the rising rate of obesity is yet to be determined. Certain aspects of personality are associated with being obese. There are many possible pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of obesity.
In particular, they and other appetite-related hormones act on the hypothalamus , a region of the brain central to the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure. There are several circuits within the hypothalamus that contribute to its role in integrating appetite, the melanocortin pathway being the most well understood. The arcuate nucleus contains two distinct groups of neurons.
Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account for some genetic and acquired forms of obesity. The World Health Organization WHO predicts that overweight and obesity may soon replace more traditional public health concerns such as undernutrition and infectious diseases as the most significant cause of poor health.
Solutions look at changing the factors that cause excess food energy consumption and inhibit physical activity. Efforts include federally reimbursed meal programs in schools, limiting direct junk food marketing to children,  and decreasing access to sugar-sweetened beverages in schools.
Many organizations have published reports pertaining to obesity. This is a comprehensive evidence-based guideline to address the management and prevention of overweight and obesity in adults and children. Comprehensive approaches are being looked at to address the rising rates of obesity. The Obesity Policy Action OPA framework divides measure into 'upstream' policies, 'midstream' policies, 'downstream' policies.
The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. Five medications have evidence for long-term use orlistat , lorcaserin , liraglutide , phentermine—topiramate , and naltrexone—bupropion. The most effective treatment for obesity is bariatric surgery. In earlier historical periods obesity was rare, and achievable only by a small elite, although already recognised as a problem for health.
But as prosperity increased in the Early Modern period , it affected increasingly larger groups of the population. In the WHO formally recognized obesity as a global epidemic. Once considered a problem only of high-income countries, obesity rates are rising worldwide and affecting both the developed and developing world. Obesity is from the Latin obesitas , which means "stout, fat, or plump". Ancient Greek medicine recognizes obesity as a medical disorder, and records that the Ancient Egyptians saw it in the same way.
It was common among high officials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance  as well as in Ancient East Asian civilizations. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution it was realized that the military and economic might of nations were dependent on both the body size and strength of their soldiers and workers.
During the 20th century, as populations reached their genetic potential for height, weight began increasing much more than height, resulting in obesity.
Many cultures throughout history have viewed obesity as the result of a character flaw. The obesus or fat character in Ancient Greek comedy was a glutton and figure of mockery.
During Christian times the food was viewed as a gateway to the sins of sloth and lust. People of all ages can face social stigmatization, and may be targeted by bullies or shunned by their peers. The weight that is viewed as an ideal has become lower since the s. In Britain, the weight at which people considered themselves to be overweight was significantly higher in than in Obesity is still seen as a sign of wealth and well-being in many parts of Africa.
This has become particularly common since the HIV epidemic began. Some attribute the Venus figurines to the tendency to emphasize fertility while others feel they represent "fatness" in the people of the time. This continued through much of Christian European history, with only those of low socioeconomic status being depicted as obese.
These women, however, still maintained the "hourglass" shape with its relationship to fertility. After centuries of obesity being synonymous with wealth and social status, slimness began to be seen as the desirable standard. In addition to its health impacts, obesity leads to many problems including disadvantages in employment   and increased business costs. These effects are felt by all levels of society from individuals, to corporations, to governments.
Obesity prevention programs have been found to reduce the cost of treating obesity-related disease. However, the longer people live, the more medical costs they incur.
Researchers, therefore, conclude that reducing obesity may improve the public's health, but it is unlikely to reduce overall health spending. Obesity can lead to social stigmatization and disadvantages in employment. The most common injuries in this group were due to falls and lifting, thus affecting the lower extremities, wrists or hands, and backs. Some research shows that obese people are less likely to be hired for a job and are less likely to be promoted.
Specific industries, such as the airline, healthcare and food industries, have special concerns. Due to rising rates of obesity, airlines face higher fuel costs and pressures to increase seating width. With the American Medical Association 's classification of obesity as a chronic disease,  it is thought that health insurance companies will more likely pay for obesity treatment, counseling and surgery, and the cost of research and development of fat treatment pills or gene therapy treatments should be more affordable if insurers help to subsidize their cost.
In , The European Court of Justice ruled that morbid obesity is a disability. The Court said that if an employee's obesity prevents him from "full and effective participation of that person in professional life on an equal basis with other workers", then it shall be considered a disability and that firing someone on such grounds is discriminatory. The principal goal of the fat acceptance movement is to decrease discrimination against people who are overweight and obese.
A number of organizations exist that promote the acceptance of obesity. It has more of a global orientation and describes its mission as promoting size acceptance and helping to end weight-based discrimination.
The American legal system, however, has decided that the potential public health costs exceed the benefits of extending this anti-discrimination law to cover obesity. In the New York Times published an article on the Global Energy Balance Network , a nonprofit founded in that advocated for people to focus on increasing exercise rather than reducing calorie intake to avoid obesity and to be healthy. Hand and Steven N. The healthy BMI range varies with the age and sex of the child. As with obesity in adults, many factors contribute to the rising rates of childhood obesity.
Changing diet and decreasing physical activity are believed to be the two most important causes for the recent increase in the incidence of child obesity. Obesity in pets is common in many countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the medical journal, see Obesity journal. Relative risk of death over 10 years for white men left and women right who have never smoked in the United States by BMI. Sedentary lifestyle and Exercise trends.
Social determinants of obesity. World obesity prevalence among males left and females right in Percentage of the population either overweight or obese by year. Retrieved 2 February Archives of General Psychiatry. The New England Journal of Medicine. Criteria and classification of obesity in Japan and Asia-Oceania. World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics.
Treatment of the Obese Patient Contemporary Endocrinology. Retrieved 5 April Frontiers of Hormone Research. Recognizes Obesity as a Disease". Archived from the original on 23 June Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 15 February Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. Center for disease control and prevention. Retrieved 6 April The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Formulation and Treatment in Clinical Health Psychology. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. American Journal of Medical Genetics.
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In , Aniston was honored by SmartWater for her ongoing philanthropic work for St. Jude's Children's Research Hospital at a special event in LA for the hospital that was attended by numerous celebrities. During the event, Aniston spoke of the importance of philanthropy in her life to InStyle magazine stating, "We live an extremely beautiful, fortunate life being able to do what we get to do for a living. And so it's a way of being able to be in a position to do something for people who are less able.
Aniston met Brad Pitt in ; their relationship became high-profile as it was widely publicized in the press. Smith co-star Angelina Jolie , whom he started dating soon after the split. Aniston commented on the divorce in a January interview with The Hollywood Reporter , stating that "Nobody did anything wrong It was just like, sometimes things [happen].
In , amid reports that Pitt and Aniston's divorce was due to Aniston's refusal to have children with Pitt, Aniston stated to Vanity Fair , "I've never in my life said I didn't want to have children. I did and I do and I will I would never give up that experience for a career. They initially became estranged when Nancy talked about her daughter on a television show and later wrote a book entitled, From Mother and Daughter to Friends: Aniston started a relationship with actor, director, and screenwriter Justin Theroux in May Aniston is a Democrat, donating to Barack Obama 's presidential campaign and taking part in a fund-raising lunch for Hillary Clinton during her Presidential campaign.
Aniston practices yoga and Budokan karate. Aniston said she had undiagnosed dyslexia , which had affected her education and self-esteem, and that after being diagnosed in her 20s, her outlook toward life changed. She stated, "I thought I wasn't smart. I just couldn't retain anything.
Now I had this great discovery. I felt like all of my childhood trauma-dies, tragedies, dramas were explained. Aniston has been on the Forbes Celebrity list, based on "earnings and fame", every year since , topping the list in She has been on the Forbes Top Earning Actresses for 15 years, every year since She has frequently appeared on People ' s annual list of " Most Beautiful Women ", and was number-one in and recently in She has been a regular on FHM ' s Sexiest Women list since , ranking at number 79 in , number 81 in , number 24 in , and number 27 in Under the category of the most sought after body shape, Aniston was voted in the top three, alongside Gisele Bündchen and Penélope Cruz.
Aniston received a motion pictures star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame on February 22, In July , Jennifer Aniston wrote an essay for The Huffington Post , in reply to recent rumors about her, where she criticized "The objectification and scrutiny we put women through We get to decide for ourselves what is beautiful when it comes to our bodies From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Jenifer Anniston. Jennifer Aniston Aniston in Actress film producer businessperson.
John Aniston father Nancy Dow mother. List of awards and nominations received by Jennifer Aniston. List of Jennifer Aniston performances. Los Angeles, California, United States. Retrieved March 2, Jennifer Aniston and Justin Theroux are separating after two and a half years of marriage.
Retrieved May 21, Vary November 14, Here's our full list! Retrieved July 7, Retrieved July 20, Retrieved July 30, Retrieved December 24, Retrieved 14 June Retrieved December 3, Retrieved September 19, Retrieved 28 May From Mother and Daughter to Friends: Inside the Actors Studio. Retrieved December 13, Retrieved August 8, Archived from the original on June 26, Retrieved May 17, Archived from the original on September 18, Retrieved March 31, Pan Macmillan — via Google Books.
Retrieved August 6, Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved August 7, The New York Times. Retrieved November 15, Archived from the original on November 25, Bright September 22, Episode 17 and Archived from the original on September 15, Special 50th Anniversary Edition. Archived from the original on November 29,