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Light colored urine for clear urine indicates that there is actually too much water. The most common feline uroliths are calcium oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and urate. Could this meal be the key to your weight loss plan? Urolith size should be monitored every 4 wk by radiographs or ultrasonography, and crystalluria by urinalysis. That really can make a difference when it comes to stay healthy in general. Having to urinate while on a boat and be deadly.
These bacteria are also beneficial for forming protective bacteria barriers from your vaginal to bladder area, which helps reduce UTI symptoms. Examples of vitamin C-rich foods include oranges, cabbage, cauliflower, tomatoes, red berries, kiwi, broccoli, spinach, guava and grapefruit.
The University of Michigan Health System recommends you take up to 5, mg of vitamin C daily to promote the healing process. According to a article in the New York Times, drinking up to 2 cups of cranberry juice daily decreases the severity and number of urinary tract infections in women. Like cranberries, blueberries contain plant compounds called proanthocyanidins, which prevent E. They also contain immune-system-boosting antioxidants. Berries may promote urinary tract health and provide protection against infection, according to the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide.
Flavonols in berries, the compounds plants use to fight bacterial infections, may be responsible for the benefits seen in humans. A glass of berry juice once a day may reduce your risk of developing a urinary tract infection by up to 34 percent.
One study, published in the July-August issue of the "Journal of Medicinal Food" found that cranberry juice cocktail prevents bacteria from sticking to the lining of the urinary tract, thereby lowering infection risk.
Participants drank 16 ounces of cranberry juice cocktail and within two hours samples of their urine showed decreased adhesive ability. The effects of the cranberry juice continued to increase for at least eight hours.
Eating yogurt and other fermented dairy products regularly may decrease your risk of urinary tract infection by up to 80 percent. Yogurt also helps prevent bladder cancer, according to a long-term study of 82, volunteers published in the October issue of the "American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. By contrast, milk and cheese did not lower bladder cancer risk. Researchers concluded that fermented dairy products may help prevent this type of cancer.
Garlic exhibited potential benefits against bladder cancer in a tissue culture study published in the January-February issue of the journal "Molecular Medicine Reports. Cystinuria is a lifelong defect of tubular reabsorption and cannot be cured. Cystine stones tend to recur within 1 yr without management to prevent recurrence, and they often recur despite attempts at prevention.
Urinary cystine output should be reduced. Protein-restricted alkalinizing diets have been associated with reducing the size of cystine urocystoliths. Urinary cystine concentration can also be reduced by administering N- 2-mercaptoproprionyl -glycine 2-MPG, tiopronin or penicillamine.
The vomiting may be partially resolved by giving the medication with meals; however, a severe reduction in dosage or complete withdrawal is often necessary.
Urine volume can be increased by mixing water with the food. Salt should not be added to the diet, because increased sodium excretion may cause increased cystine excretion. If urine volume is adequate and the urine pH is maintained above 7. Under such conditions, only relatively small doses of 2-MPG or penicillamine may be necessary to achieve hr undersaturation. Early reports indicated a predominance of silica stones in German Shepherds, but many breeds have now been implicated.
Urethral obstruction in males is the most common presenting problem, but signs similar to those associated with other types of uroliths also may be noted. The stones are usually multiple and develop in the bladder and urethra. Silica uroliths are radiopaque. Identification requires spectrographic analysis and cannot be made with kits for qualitative stone analysis.
The role of diet in spontaneously occurring silica urolithiasis has not been determined, although plants are often an abundant source of silica. If the diet of an affected dog is known to be high in silica, or if silica urolithiasis has been recurrent, a dietary change should be recommended.
Only general management principles can be suggested for silicate urolithiasis. When present, urinary tract infections should be eliminated. Diets high in plant proteins should be avoided. Hematuria, pollakiuria, and stranguria are the characteristic clinical signs of feline lower urinary tract disease FLUTD in cats.
Although the specific underlying cause of this common syndrome is often not identified, associated conditions include urinary tract infection, neoplasia, trauma, urethral plugs, urolithiasis, and sterile cystitis feline interstitial cystitis. Feline urolithiasis is a common disease seen with equal frequency in both sexes. Until recently, it was thought that most uroliths in cats were small and resembled sand or were gelatinous plugs that differed from typical uroliths in that they contained a greater amount of organic matrix, giving them a toothpaste-like consistency.
Matrix-crystalline plugs are most commonly found within the urethra near the urethral orifice and are primarily responsible for urethral obstruction. Recently, prevalence of urolithiasis with grossly observable stones composed primarily of calcium oxalate has increased in cats. The most common feline uroliths are calcium oxalate, magnesium ammonium phosphate, and urate. Urolithiasis is usually suspected based on clinical signs of hematuria, dysuria, or urethral obstruction.
Urinalysis, urine culture, radiography, and ultrasonography may be required to differentiate uroliths from urinary tract infection or neoplasia. The usual clinical approach to grossly observable urocystoliths is surgical removal or lithotripsy where available, followed by dietary therapy instituted as a preventive measure.
For sterile struvite uroliths, medical dissolution is the preferred treatment. Nephrolithiasis is not associated with an increase in the rate of progression of feline kidney injury, and cats with nephrolithiasis are generally managed without surgery. Calcium oxalate uroliths are the most common feline uroliths and the most common nephrolith, although their underlying cause is unknown.
Common management schemes that involve feeding urine-acidifying diets with reduced magnesium have reduced the incidence of feline struvite urolithiasis. Magnesium has been reported to be an inhibitor of calcium oxalate formation in rats and people; thus, the reduced magnesium concentration in feline urine may partially explain the increase in calcium oxalate stones in cats.
Medical protocols that promote calcium oxalate dissolution are not known; therefore, surgery and lithotripsy are the primary means for removal small bladder stones may be eliminated by voiding urohydropulsion. However, some calcium oxalate uroliths, especially those in the kidneys, may not cause clinical signs for months to years.
Because of the unavoidable destruction of nephrons during nephrotomy, this procedure is not recommended unless it can be established that the stones are a cause of clinically significant disease.
A variety of diets has been formulated to restrict the formation of calcium oxalate uroliths and should be considered appropriate for maintenance in cats with nephroliths and after the removal of urocystoliths. Diets that reduce the likelihood of formation of both struvite and calcium oxalate stones are commercially available. Three distinct types of struvite uroliths are recognized in cats: Struvite uroliths induced by infection are less common than sterile struvite uroliths.
An additional type of struvite urolith in cats consists of a sterile struvite nidus that predisposes to urinary tract infection with urease-producing bacteria and subsequent formation of infected struvite laminations around the sterile nidus. Reducing urine pH and magnesium concentration is best accomplished by feeding a commercially available prescription diet formulated for this purpose.
Some diets are formulated to reduce the formation of both struvite and calcium oxalate stones. Generally, neither sodium chloride nor urine acidifiers should be given concurrently with these diets, because they are already supplemented with sodium chloride and formulated to produce aciduria. In addition, these diets should not be fed to cats that are acidemic, have azotemia of any cause, or have cardiac dysfunction or hypertension.
Urolith size should be monitored every 4 wk by radiographs or ultrasonography, and crystalluria by urinalysis. Struvite crystals should not form if therapy has been effective in producing urine that is undersaturated with magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate.
If treatment does not induce complete dissolution of uroliths, it is likely that either the wrong mineral component was identified, the nucleus of the urolith is composed of a different mineral than the outer portion of the urolith, or the owner is not complying with therapeutic recommendations.
Although a renal tubular reabsorptive defect and portovascular anomalies have been incriminated as causes in a few cases, the cause of most urate uroliths in cats has not been established. Nonetheless, formation of highly acidic and concentrated urine associated with consumption of diets high in purine precursors especially liver appears to be a risk factor. Medical protocols that consistently promote dissolution of ammonium urate uroliths in cats have not been developed, and surgery remains the most common method of removal.
For small stones, voiding urohydropulsion may be effective. Prevention should include feeding a diet low in purine precursors and promoting formation of less acidic urine that is not highly concentrated. Although allopurinol may reduce the formation of urate in cats, studies of the efficacy and potential toxicity of allopurinol in cats are required before meaningful guidelines can be established.
Feline interstitial cystitis is generally taken to be synonymous with sterile cystitis of unknown cause. The underlying cause of this disorder is unknown, although anxiety and altered neurohormonal factors have been implicated. Diagnosis is by exclusion of other causes of lower urinary tract disease in cats, such as obstruction by urethral plugs, bacterial urinary tract infection, neoplasia or other mass lesions, and urolithiasis.
Diagnostic tests to exclude these conditions may include radiographs, ultrasonography, urinalysis, urine culture, and cystoscopy. Because the cause of feline interstitial cystitis is unknown, the goal of treatment is to reduce the severity and frequency of episodes of cystitis.
Therapeutic considerations include reduction of stress through environmental changes, dietary adjustments eg, use of canned preparations , pheromones applied topically in the environment, and analgesics eg, butorphanol , 0. Other medications eg, amitriptyline , 5— Most urinary tract pathogens are not considered zoonotic. However, which of the following organisms is most likely to be transmitted via infected urine from animals to humans?
Cardiology is not a required rotation at OVC, but I picked it up nonetheless because it is one of my weakest subjects.