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In East Africa, the system stretches southward from Kenya to Mozambique and includes coastal areas of Zanzibar, Comoros and Madagascar. Journal of Orthoptera Research. The wife owns about 20 scavenging chickens. Conservation Ecology 5 2: Cattle, camels, sheep, goats and donkeys are the main livestock kept by the pastoralists for subsistence; most herds are mixed.
Sustainability, Resource Depletion
International Consultancy Services for energy efficiency pilot projects. Support for army worm, basic animal health management and post-harvest management training. Rubble and Debris Removal for Houses and Streets.
RFQ Supply furniture of two Ninwah primary schools. Recrutement d'un consultant international, formateur pour le personnel cadre des opérateurs dans les domaines des énergies renouvelables. Consultant International en réforme juridique du VIH. Firm Level Consultancy Service for Designing and operationalizing a voluntary carbon offset scheme to support urban and peri-urban reforestation in Ethiopia.
RFP-BD; Request for Proposal for Hiring a firm for integrating the sector development plan of Rio conventions in Hakaluki Haor, Bangladesh; under the national capacity development for implementing rio conventions through environmental governance. Shohada Al Shat School, 2. Shohada Souq Al-Joma'a School, 3. Technical Coordinator for Feasibility Studies of biodiversity finance solutions in Thailand.
Khalifa Al-Hejaji School, 2. Moktar Bel Haje School, 3. RFP - Development of the study for establishing an early warning system for floods from category 2 watercourses for the territory of the City of Belgrade. Consultoría para Implementación, seguimiento y monitoreo de actividades del Proyecto - Plan Participativo de Agua y Saneamiento - 2do Llamado.
International Consultant Spécialiste en données Géospatiales. SDC Servicios de consultoría para desarrollar un sitio web para el proyecto Transparencia e Integridad.
IC National consulant - Advocacy officer. Ageel Ebra School, 2. Al-Mgarba School, Al Garabouli. Omar Almokhtar School, 2. Saidi Bireesh School, 3.
Omar Ebn Al-khattab School, 2. Support to Fiscal decentralization and the financial management system in Jordan. Acquisition de supports et produits de communication - Projet Appui au Conseil Constitutionnel. Fourniture des biens non alimentaires dans le cadre du projet ECHO. Field Assistant in Dashoguz and Turkmenabat cities 2 positions. Recruitment of National Consultant for preparation of need assessment to enhance effectiveness of protected area management in the project sites.
Consultant International Chargé du renforcement des capacités de la haute administration publique burundaise en matière de Gestion Axée sur les Résultats. Recruitment of Two National Consultants to undertake rapid needs assessment for early recovery and development support to IDPs. Website and Mobile Application Designer and Developer. RFP - Long Term Agreement for conducting specific tasks related to architectural, civil, mechanical, electrical, geodetic, geological, traffic and environmental project designs, verifications and supervision.
ITB Acquisition et installation des machines à laver et séchoirs dans les établissements pénitentiaires. Elaboración de propuestas de mejora. National Consultant-Monitoring and Evaluation Expert. National Consultant- Irrigation and Drainage Specialist. National Consultant- Hydrologist and Modeling Specialist.
National Consultant- Hydro-geological investigation Specialist. National Consultant to Climate Change Specialist. Un a Asesor a en Estadística , Proyecto: Un a Asesor a en Comunicación Proyecto: International Organisational Capacity Development Specialist. Providing Pesticides lot 1 , Pesticide Sprayer Pumps lot 2 , Tools for debris and solid waste management lot 3 and Uniforms lot 4.
International Consultant on Business and Human Rights. SDP Documentación de la agrobiodiversidad ex situ y el desarrollo de Estrategia de Conservación in situ de la Biodiversidad Agrícola.
Expert national en inventaire et en valorisation des ressources génétiques des microorganismes EN Expert national en inventaire et en valorisation des ressources génétiques de la faune sauvage et domestique EN Expert national en inventaire et en valorisation des ressources génétiques marines EN Expert national en inventaire et en valorisation des ressources génétiques forestières et relatives aux plantes aromatiques et médicinales EN8.
Expert national en inventaire et en protection des connaissances traditionnelles associées aux ressources génétiques EN2. Consultant National pour appuyer la conduite des exercices de simulation.
National Consultant to conduct a gender analysis for Mt Elgon. Project Management Support Access to Justice project.
IC Etude législative de la réinsertion socio-économique et travail des détenus VF. Recrutement d'un bureau d'étude pour l'étude diagnostique et l'évaluation de la mise en place du cadastre minier tchadien. RFP Volume based waste fee system Re-announcement. Rehabilitation of Almojahed School, Benghazi, Libya. Legal Consultant to support ratification of the Kigali Amendment.
Recrutement de 02 Consultants nationaux individuels. Economic Empowerment intervention through solar energy initiative. SDC Servicios de Cartografía de precisión de las zonas de Palo Verde y Castañuelas en Monte Cristi para determinar las zonas vulnerables de inundación para el piloto de sistema de alerta temprana de las comunidades bananeras.
SDC Servicios de consultoría para la capacitación y acompañamiento técnico de las organizaciones de la sociedad civil. Supply of IP camera and Biometric attendance system. Consultant international sur les avantages découlant de la biodiversité et des services et fonctions écosystémiques. Consultoría para Implementación, seguimiento y monitoreo de actividades del Proyecto - Plan Participativo de Agua y Saneamiento. Un a Consultor a de Terreno en Región Chorotega. Consultant national pour accompagner l'évaluation à mi-parcours.
Consultant International pour évaluation à mi-parcours. Consultant national Senior pour la mobilisation du Secteur privé sur la Finance climatique. LRFQ - Procurement of simultaneous translation equipment. Supply,delivery and installation of 70 solar systems with different system capacity to Hajja,Hodeida,Abyan and Lahj. Al Zaitona School, 2. Massoud Swassi School, 3. Abdulbasit Al Hamroni School, 2. Al Hakh Revaluation School, 3. Salem Abdelnabi School, 2.
Sowaid Alwahda School, 3. Al Nogoom Alzahira School, 2. Ebn Al Nnafees School, 3. Khalid ben Al Waled School, 2. Noor Ale'lm School, 3. Jawhara Trables School, 2. Noor Alma'refa School, 3. Khalid Ben Al Walid School, 2. Shouhada Abo Hamed School, 3. Delivery, installation and integration of meteorology equipment Ref: Asphalting works on local roads and sidewalk in 3MZs in Municipality of Ljubuski.
Consultancy - Climate Advocacy Specialist. RFQ la prestation de "Acquisition et installation des équipements sportifs en salles pour le personnel dans les établissements pénitentiaires". SDP Diseño del Plan de Acción para la incorporación a mejores oportunidades sociales y económicas, de recicladores informales de residuos de aparatos eléctricos y electrónicos, e implementación a escala piloto en una localidad seleccionada.
Sakina Bent Hussin School, 2. Talae'a Al-Takadom School, 3. SDP Desarrollo e implementación de un programa de capacitación en línea en dos modalidades: Procurement of Furniture for Multifunctional Center in Shkodra. Request for Proposals for the designing, supplying and installation of boreholes and solar powered ground water systems and water storage and conveyance systems and solar powered electrical system for the school and teachers ho. RE- Advertisement for the Recruitment of an International Firm to Conduct the Feasibility study on the implementation of a tax regime for agriculture in Rwanda.
Demande de cotation réalisation des films audiovisuels. Provision of individual services of a Technical Validation Expert for validating the draft Rehabilitation plan of the Euphrates hydroelectric power plant. IC National consultant - Monitoring specialist. Un Consultant National pour réaliser une étude de faisabilité de la mise en place d'un système de gestion de la construction publique en Tunisie.
Associate Evaluator for Quantitative Analysis: Individual Consultant International - Procurement Consultant. Provision of individual services for conducting Training Needs Assessment for local partners in Aleppo city. Request for Quotation for Solar Panels and Equipment. RFQ for purchasing of Two 2 Four-wheel drive vehicles and one 1 sedan vehicles in two lots. Expert on Environmentally Responsible Mining Technologies.
Recrutement d'un cabinet pour la réalisation de l'enquête de perception de la population sur les secteurs de la sécurité et de la justice.
Consultoría para inspecciones puntuales para Instituciones Contrapartes. Development of the Software for the Georgian Bar Association.
Drakhtik, Gegharkunik Marz, Armenia. Asesoría técnica para el desarrollo empresarial de pequeños y medianos negocios dentro de la cadena de valor de la leche. RFP Development and implementation of an awareness campaign on reducing the health risk from exposure to outdoor air pollution - Ecokosovo 2. Supply and delivery of three 3 round balers with fixed bale chamber.
Individual consultancy - National Evaluator. Facilitation and guide of the completion of institutional Strategic Frameworks and the development of departmental roadmaps for the Ministry of Environment and National Council for Sustainable Development.
Un a Profesional Especialista en Logro de Acuerdos Institucionales e Interinstitucionales, ProyectoConservando la biodiversidad a través de la gestión sostenible en los paisajes de producción en Costa Rica.
Profesional Junior en Ciencias Forestales, Proyecto Conservando la biodiversidad a través de la gestión sostenible en los paisajes de producción en Costa Rica. Proceso A - Consultoría para apoyar el diseño de la ruta de trabajo para la ratificación del protocolo de Nagoya mediante la identificación de los mecanismos, arreglos institucionales, técnicos para su implementación en Colombia.
Profesional Junior en Topografía, Proyecto Conservando la biodiversidad a través de la gestión sostenible en los paisajes de producción en Costa Rica.
Un a Profesional en Derecho, Proyecto Conservando la biodiversidad a través de la gestión sostenible en los paisajes de producción en Costa Rica.
Un a Profesional Junior en el Campo Social, Proyecto Conservando la biodiversidad a través de la gestión sostenible en los paisajes de producción en Costa Rica. National legal expert to support the establishment of a Cambodian Environmental Legal Network. Individual consultancy - National Consultant for carrying out an in-country survey on HFCs and their alternatives in mobile air-conditioning sector MAC. Rehabilitation of Jensiya building in Baiji - Salahdien Governorate.
Recruitment of a National consultant for the valuation of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge. Proceso A - Consultor a para realizar acompañamiento psicosocial a mujeres víctimas de violencia y a organizaciones sociales, para la promoción, prevención y atención a nivel psicosocial, en las zonas priorizadas por el proyecto - Nariño.
Proceso A - Consultor a para realizar acompañamiento socio-jurídico a mujeres víctimas de violencia y a organizaciones sociales, en materia de acceso a la justicia y restablecimiento de derechos, en las zonas priorizadas por el proyecto. SDP Servicios de evaluación de capacidades de gestión para organizaciones de la sociedad civil.
Proceso A - Consultor a para realizar acompañamiento psicosocial a mujeres víctimas de violencia y a organizaciones sociales, para la promoción, prevención y atención a nivel psicosocial, en las zonas priorizadas por el proyecto - Putumayo.
RFQ Conduct baseline survey on gender equality. Individual consultancy - International consultant for the Economic and policy analysis within for the Lebanon low emission development strategy. Proceso A - Consultor a para realizar acompañamiento psicosocial a mujeres víctimas de violencia y a organizaciones sociales, para la promoción, prevención y atención a nivel psicosocial, en las zonas priorizadas por el proyecto - Chocó.
SDP Consultoría para desarrollar 10 protocolos bioculturales en dif. Ja'afer Abn Abi Taleb School, 2. Mansor Oun School, and 3. Almadina Aljadida School, 2. Al Mabrok wanees School, and 3. Shouhada Al Sawani School, 2. Jafer Al Tayar School, and 3. Al Rrabi School, 2. Al Karaimeia Al Markazeia School, and 3. Location de niveleuses, pelle chargeuse de godet, compacteur vibrant, camion benne, camion citerne dans le cadre de réhabilitation de piste dans l'Androy.
The Irrigated Farming System is quite complex, especially in respect of institutional aspects. In many cases, irrigated cropping is supplemented by rainfed cropping or animal husbandry the Gezira is one notable exception. Water control may be full or partial. Irrigated holdings vary in size from 22 ha per household in the Gezira scheme to less than 1 ha.
Many state-run schemes are currently in crisis, but if institutional problems can be solved, future agricultural growth potential is good. The incidence of poverty is lower than in other farming systems and absolute numbers of poor are small. This farming system runs from Côte d'Ivoire to Ghana, and from Nigeria and Cameroon to Gabon, with smaller pockets in Congo and Angola, largely in the humid zone.
The system occupies 73 million ha three percent of the region's land area, but accounts for 10 million ha 6 percent of total cultivated area and supports an agricultural population of nearly 25 million 7 percent of the regional total. The backbone of the system is the production of industrial tree crops; notably cocoa, coffee, oil palm and rubber. Food crops are inter-planted between tree crops and are grown mainly for subsistence; few cattle are raised. There are also commercial tree crop estates particularly for oil palm and rubber in these areas, providing services to smallholder tree crop farmers through nucleus estate and outgrower schemes.
Since neither tree crop nor food crop failure is common, price fluctuations for industrial crops constitute the main source of vulnerability. Socio-economic differentiation is considerable. The incidence of poverty is limited to moderate, and tends to be concentrated among very small farmers and agricultural workers, but growth potential is moderately high. Rice, banana, coffee, maize, cassava, legumes, livestock, off-farm work.
Banana, plantain, enset, coffee, cassava, sweet potato, beans, cereals, livestock, poultry, off-farm work. Wheat barley, tef, peas, lentils, broadbeans, rape, potatoes, sheep, goats, livestock, poultry, off-farm work. Sorghum, pearl millet, pulses. Marine fish, coconuts, cashew, banana, yams, fruit, goats, poultry, off-farm work. Prevalence of poverty refers to number in poverty, not depth of poverty, and is a relative assessment for this region.
This farming system occupies million ha 11 percent of the total land in the region, accounts for six million ha 4 percent of cultivation and supports an agricultural population of 28 million 7 percent of the region. Farmers practice shifting cultivation; clearing a new field from the forest every year, cropping it for 2 to 5 years first cereals or groundnuts, then cassava and then abandoning it to bush fallow for 7 to 20 years. With increasing population density, however, the fallow periods are progressively being reduced.
Cassava is the main staple, complemented by maize, sorghum, beans and cocoyams. Cattle and small ruminant populations are low, as is human population density. Physical isolation plus lack of roads and markets pose serious problems.
Forest products and wild game are the main source of cash, which is in very short supply because few households have cash crops and market outlets are distant. Poverty is extensive, and in places very severe. Agricultural growth potential is moderate, thanks to the existence of large uncultivated areas and high rainfall, but yield increases in the near future are expected to be modest. Development requires careful management of environmental risks, including soil fragility and loss of wildlife habitats.
This farming system is located in Madagascar - mostly in the moist subhumid and humid agro-ecological zones. It accounts for only 31 million ha of land area and 2. Though farm size is small, there is a significant amount of irrigation - equivalent to 10 percent of the region's total irrigated area.
Banana and coffee cultivation is complemented by rice, maize, cassava and legumes. Cattle numbers are relatively low. Poverty is of moderate prevalence. From a resource and climatic perspective the agricultural growth potential is high. However, actual agricultural growth and the poverty reduction potential are both considered fairly low in the short term, due to small farm size, shortage of appropriate technologies, and poor development of markets and off-farm activities. This farming system, found in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi, covers 32 million ha only 1 percent of the land area of the region, mostly in the subhumid and humid agro-ecological zones, but accounts for 6 million ha 4 percent of the cultivated area and has an agricultural population of 30 million 8 percent of the regional total.
This system supports the highest rural population density more than one person per ha of land in the region. Land use is intense and holdings are very small average cultivated area per household is just under one ha, but more than 50 percent of holdings are smaller than 0. The farming system is based on perennial crops such as banana, plantain, enset 11 and coffee, complemented by cassava, sweet potato, beans and cereals.
Eleven million cattle are kept, for milk, manure, bridewealth, savings and social security. The main trends are diminishing farm size, declining soil fertility, and increasing poverty and hunger. People cope by working the land more intensively, but returns to labour are low. Poverty is high, both in terms of severity and absolute numbers.
Despite favourable natural resources and climate, both the overall agricultural growth potential and the poverty reduction potential are considered fairly low, due to very small farm size, absence of under-utilised resources, shortage of appropriate technologies, poor infrastructure, and markets and few opportunities for off-farm activities.
This farming system occupies 44 million ha only two percent of the land area of the region and accounts for six million ha 4 percent of cultivated area, but supports an agricultural population of 28 million 7 percent of the total in the region.
Most of the system is located at altitudes between and metres in the highlands and mountains of Ethiopia. Smaller areas are found in Eritrea, Lesotho, Angola, Cameroon and Nigeria, generally in subhumid or humid agro-ecological zones.
Average population density is high and average farm size is small 1 to 2 ha. Cattle are numerous estimated population of 17 million and are kept for ploughing, milk, manure, bridewealth, savings and emergency sale. Small grains such as wheat and barley are the main staples, complemented by peas, lentils, broad beans, rape, tef in Ethiopia and Irish potatoes.
The main sources of cash are from the sale of sheep and goats, wool, local barley beer, Irish potatoes, pulses and oilseeds.
Some households have access to soldiers' salaries Ethiopia and Eritrea or remittances Lesotho , but these mountain areas offer few local opportunities for off-farm employment. Typically there is a single cropping season, although some parts of Ethiopia have a second, shorter season.
There are major problems in the farming system: There is, however, considerable potential for diversification into higher-value temperate crops. Household vulnerability stems mainly from the risky climate: As with other food-crop based farming systems, a hungry season occurs from planting time until the main grain harvest. Poverty incidence is moderate to extensive - in comparison with other systems in Africa - except for the periodic droughts which afflict the Horn of Africa The potential for poverty reduction and for agricultural growth potential is only moderate.
This farming system is situated in, and extends from, Sierra Leone to Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria and Cameroon, typically in the moist subhumid and humid agro-ecological zones. The system accounts for million ha around 11 percent of the land area of the region, 28 million ha 16 percent of the cultivated area and 44 million 11 percent of the agricultural population of the region.
Rainfall is either bimodal or nearly continuous and risk of crop failure is low. The system contains around 17 million cattle. The prevalence of poverty is limited to moderate. Agricultural growth potential and poverty reduction potential are moderate; technologies for this system are not yet fully developed.
Nonetheless, market prospects for export of oil palm products are attractive, urban demand for root crops is growing, and linkages between agriculture and off-farm activities are relatively better than elsewhere. It accounts for million ha 13 percent of the land area of the region - predominantly in the dry subhumid zone - 31 million ha 18 percent of the cultivated area and supports an agricultural population of 59 million 15 percent of the region.
Cattle are numerous - some 42 million head. Although the system shares a number of climatic characteristics with the Maize Mixed System, other characteristics set it apart, namely; lower altitude, higher temperatures, lower population density, abundant cultivated land, higher livestock numbers per household, and poorer transport and communications infrastructure.
Although cereals such as maize, sorghum and millet are widespread, wherever animal traction is absent root crops such as yams and cassava are more important than cereals. Intercropping is common, and a wide range of crops is grown and marketed. The main source of vulnerability is drought. Poverty incidence is limited, numbers of poor people are modest and the potential for poverty reduction is moderate. Agricultural growth prospects are excellent and, as described in the relevant section below, this system could become the bread basket of Africa and an important source of export earnings.
This farming system is the most important food production system in East and Southern Africa, extending across plateau and highland areas at altitudes of to metres, from Kenya and Tanzania to Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Swaziland and Lesotho It accounts for million ha 10 percent of the land area, 32 million ha 19 percent of the cultivated area and an agricultural population of 60 million 15 percent of the regional total.
Climate varies from dry subhumid to moist subhumid. The most typical areas have monomodal rainfall, but some areas experience bimodal rainfall. Population density is moderately high and average farm sizes are rather modest - often less than two ha. The farming system also contains scattered irrigation schemes, but these are mostly small-scale and amount to only six percent of the irrigated area in the region.
Where a bimodal rainfall pattern occurs farmers have two cropping seasons, but in drier areas they usually harvest only once a year from a given field. The main staple is maize and the main cash sources are migrant remittances, cattle, small ruminants, tobacco, coffee and cotton, plus the sale of food crops such as maize and pulses.
About 36 million cattle are kept for ploughing, breeding, milk, farm manure, bridewealth, savings and emergency sale. In spite of scattered settlement patterns, community institutions and market linkages in the maize belt are relatively better developed than in other farming systems. Socio-economic differentiation is considerable, due mainly to migration, and the whole system is currently in crisis as input use has fallen sharply due to the shortage of seed, fertiliser and agro-chemicals, plus the high price of fertiliser relative to the maize price.
As a result, yields have fallen and soil fertility is declining, while smallholders are reverting to extensive production practices. The main sources of vulnerability are drought and market volatility. There is a moderate incidence of chronic poverty, linked to small farm size and absence of draught oxen and migrant remittances.
Recently transitory poverty has sharply increased as a result of retrenchment of off-farm workers coupled with policy reforms affecting maize. In spite of the current crisis, long term agricultural growth prospects are relatively good and the potential for reduction of poverty is high.
This farming system extends across the northern part of the Republic of South Africa and the southern part of Namibia, mostly in semiarid and dry subhumid zones, and accounts for million ha 5 percent of the land in the region, 12 million ha 7 percent of the cultivated land and 17 million 4 percent of the agricultural population. It comprises two distinct types of farms: Both types are largely mixed cereal-livestock systems, with maize dominating in the north and east, and sorghum and millet in the west.
Both cattle an estimated 11 million head and small ruminants are raised in this system, but the level of crop-livestock integration is only modest. Although the overall prevalence of poverty is moderate, it is often severe among smallholder families who often survive by means of off-farm income from employment, principally in other sectors outside the area. Vulnerability is high, since a considerable part of the farming system has poor soils and is drought-prone.
Chronic and extensive poverty exists among smallholder families. Agricultural growth prospects are moderate, and there is a low-medium potential for poverty reduction. This farming system occupies million ha 8 percent of the land of the region, generally in the semiarid zone of West Africa from Senegal to Niger, and in substantial areas of East and Southern Africa from Somalia and Ethiopia to South Africa.
It has an agricultural population of 33 million 8 percent and their density is modest, but pressure on the limited amount of cultivated land is very high. Crops and livestock are of similar importance. Nearly 22 million ha are used for crops - 12 percent of the cultivated land in the region. Rainfed sorghum and pearl millet are the main sources of food and are rarely marketed, whereas sesame and pulses are sometimes sold. Land preparation is by oxen or camel, while hoe cultivation is common along riverbanks.
The system contains nearly 25 million head of cattle as well as sheep and goats. Livestock are kept for subsistence milk and milk products , offspring, transportation camels, donkeys , land preparation oxen, camels , sale or exchange, savings, bridewealth and insurance against crop failure. The population generally lives permanently in villages, although part of their herds may continue to migrate seasonally in the care of herdboys.
The main source of vulnerability is drought, leading to crop failure, weak animals and the distress sale of assets. Poverty is extensive, and often severe. The potential for poverty reduction is only moderate. Agricultural growth potential is also modest and presents important challenges.
There are also pastoral areas in the arid zones of Namibia and in parts of Botswana and Southern Angola. The system occupies million ha 14 percent of the regional land area, but accounts for only 27 million 7 percent of the agricultural population and 21 million cattle, as well as sheep, goats and camels. During the driest period of the year, Sahelian pastoralists move south to the Cereal-Root Crop Mixed System areas and they return north during the rainy season.
The main source of vulnerability is the great climatic variability and consequently high incidence of drought. Socio-economic differentiation is considerable - many herders have lost most of their animals due to droughts or stock theft. Poverty incidence is extensive, but the potential for poverty reduction is low. Agricultural growth potential is also modest.
Despite covering some million ha 17 percent of the land area of the region, this system is found mainly in six countries: It is of limited significance from the point of view of agriculture, and has a human population of around six million - 1.
Because the wadis and their surrounding areas are considered part of the Pastoral System, grazing within the actual Sparse Arid System is limited. There are some scattered irrigation settlements in these arid areas and thus about 0. Poverty is extensive and often severe, especially after droughts. The potential for both agricultural growth and poverty reduction is low. In East Africa, the system stretches southward from Kenya to Mozambique and includes coastal areas of Zanzibar, Comoros and Madagascar.
The system occupies almost 38 million two percent of the land and accounts for 13 million three percent of the agricultural population in the region; with a fairly high average population density. Households that depend on lake and river fishing are not included in this system. The livelihood system is based on artisanal fishing supplemented by crop production, sometimes in multi-storied tree crop gardens with root crops under coconuts, fruit trees and cashews, plus some animal production.
Cultivated area amounts to five million ha three percent of the regional total. Some four percent of cultivated land is irrigated. Artisanal fishing includes sea fishing from boats, seine net fishing from beaches, setting of nets and traps along estuaries and in shallow lagoons, and catching of crustaceans in mangrove swamps.
Poultry and goats are the main domestic animals. Cattle keeping is rare, due to, inter alia, tsetse infestation, and land preparation is by hand. Off-farm opportunities are connected with tourist resorts along the beaches and with large tree crop estates. In West Africa, because of the humid climate, there is more swamp rice and little or no cashewnut. Although socio-economic differentiation is considerable, the current prevalence of poverty is only moderate.
The potential for poverty reduction is considered low, and agricultural growth potential is only modest. Within the estimated total urban population of over million in the region, there is a significant number of farmers in cities and large towns. In some cities it is estimated that 10 percent or more of the population are engaged in urban agriculture Overall, it is estimated that there are around 11 million agricultural producers in urban areas.
This farming system is very heterogeneous; ranging from small-scale but capital-intensive market-oriented commercial vegetable growing, dairy farming and livestock fattening, and part-time farming by the urban poor to cover part of their subsistence requirements. The level of crop-livestock integration is often low, and there are some environmental and food quality concerns associated with urban farming.
The potential for poverty reduction is low, mainly because the absolute number of poor is low. Agricultural growth is likely to take place spontaneously, in response to urban market demand for fresh produce, even in the absence of public sector support. Unless curbed by concerns over negative environmental effects, rapid adoption of improved technologies can be expected. Overall, this is a very dynamic farming system that has considerable growth potential.
Building on the discussion in Chapter 1 of the global trends influencing farming system evolution, this section provides an overview of common trends affecting most farming systems in the region.
These are discussed under the headings of population, hunger and poverty; natural resources and climate; science and technology; trade liberalisation and market development; policies, institutions and public goods; and information and human capital.
The population of Sub-Saharan Africa is projected to increase by 78 percent in the coming three decades. This is considerably faster than the projected growth rate for developing countries as a whole. During this 30 year period, the rural population is projected to increase by 30 percent, and the agricultural component is expected to expand by a slightly lower proportion, moderated by growing urbanisation. Urban population - currently 33 percent - is expected to rise to 50 percent of the overall total by Sub-Saharan Africa is unique in that rapid urbanisation has been occurring during a period of economic contraction.
If HIV spreads faster than expected, East and Southern Africa could experience an extremely sharp contraction of the labour force in the prime working age group although with the exception of South Africa net populations growth will continue , a corresponding rise in dependency ratios, and an increase in the number of AIDS orphans requiring assistance.
Already, traditional social safety nets are unable to cope with the existing orphans. The cost to the economy - in loss of productive labour, medical costs and orphan support - is likely to be overwhelming. Up to the present time, the farming systems most affected have been the Highland Perennial and the Maize Mixed Systems, but the Large-scale Commercial and Smallholder System has also lost much of its skilled supervisory labour force.
Because labour requirements for cassava are more evenly spread throughout the year than they are for cereals, farmers try to cope by expanding the area under cassava and reducing the area under cereals.
Staff turnover is so high that much of the investment in human capacity building by agricultural projects, including overseas training, may have been wasted. During the past 30 years the number of undernourished people in the region has increased substantially, to an estimated million people in It is estimated that 33 percent of the regional population was undernourished at this time, with a higher incidence of undernourishment found in rural areas than among urban dwellers.
In spite of the increased calorie supply, it is estimated that around 15 percent of the population about million people will still be undernourished - an increase in the absolute number - unless deliberate measures are taken to ensure better access to food. The region has a higher proportion of people living in dollar poverty than any other region of the world.
Across the whole region, rural poverty still accounts for 90 percent of total poverty and approximately 80 percent of the poor still depend on agriculture or farm labour for their livelihood.
Of even more concern, the total number of poor people is increasing. Currently, forest covers approximately million ha almost 17 percent of land area. The current annual deforestation rate is 0. The farming systems that are most closely linked with deforestation are: Cultivated area has expanded from million ha in to million ha including annually cultivated land and permanent crops in This represents a slow annual expansion of 0. During the period until , cultivated land is projected to expand even more slowly, but the actual rate of expansion will depend upon the future evolution of farming systems.
The area affected by land degradation is increasing and the causes are complex. There are many aspects of land degradation; including soil erosion, soil compaction, reduced soil organic matter, declining soil fertility and soil biodiversity.
Although land degradation is evident in a majority of farming systems, it is particularly notable in those such as the Highland Perennial and the Highland Temperate Systems where - in the absence of policy incentives for good land management - high population density places excessive pressure on land.
The region has a moderate level of renewable water resources, but only two percent of the available resources are currently utilised for irrigation compared with 20 percent in the overall group of developing countries.
As global warming accelerates the most affected farming systems are likely to be those in the arid, semiarid and dry subhumid areas The increasing frequency and severity of droughts are likely to cause: Households will probably try to cope with their cash and food shortage by cutting and selling firewood - thereby exacerbating land degradation and accelerating the onset of desertification - and by moving temporarily or permanently to more favoured areas.
Conflicts between sedentary farmers and pastoralists will become more common as a result. The Forest Based System, on the other hand, might benefit from reduction of excess moisture, but it is likely to face a population influx from neighbouring areas. The new settlers will cut and clear the forest to plant their crops - which might reduce beneficial effects of carbon sequestration by tropical forests.
With increased population pressure, fallow periods would decline, making it progressively more difficult for farmers to maintain soil fertility and to control noxious weeds. Not only could yields fall, but biodiversity could also suffer. Total annual and permanent cropped area was about million ha in and it is expected to expand substantially in the years up to Total production of all crops in was just over million tons and, if current farming trends continue, is forecast to more than double by FAO projections suggest that this increase would be associated with an average rise in crop yields of 60 percent The greater importance of productivity growth in future decades is in contrast to the nature of production growth in the past 30 years, during which time maize area expanded 1.
Major increases are expected to come from expanded production on heavy lowland soils, humid and moist subhumid tropics, and on irrigated land in several farming systems - although most production in Sub-Saharan Africa will continue to come from rainfed farming. Inorganic fertiliser consumption is very low despite the declining soil fertility noted above.
Total regional consumption is only 1. During the period until , total fertiliser consumption in the region is only expected to increase slowly Even if fertiliser use expands rapidly in Africa, average application rates will continue to be far lower than in other regions. The use of compost or other soil amendments does not compensate for these very low levels of fertiliser use. Currently, the region has million head of cattle, 19 million goats and million sheep see Table 2.
Tsetse infestation is a major factor influencing the distribution of livestock between different farming systems. The tsetse challenge tends to be concentrated in the moist subhumid and humid lowlands, and in drier areas near game reserves. In spite of this, increasing numbers of cattle are raised in areas that were originally tsetse infested in the moist subhumid and dry subhumid zones, e.
This trend is likely to continue. Nevertheless, cattle numbers per household tend to be higher in the dry farming systems than in the moist systems. From to the present time, regional cattle, goat and sheep numbers grew moderately, but poultry and pig populations have grown faster, at around three percent per annum. Between and , livestock and poultry numbers production are projected to grow at a moderate rate, due to expansion of urban consumer demand for meat, milk and eggs.
Since , although the absolute value of agricultural exports has risen, the region's share of world agricultural trade has fallen. In absolute terms, the sharpest fall has been in Southern Africa, whose share of world agricultural trade fell from nine percent in to three percent in In proportional terms, however, the other sub-regions of Africa have done little better.
There has been much more stability in Africa's share of world agricultural imports, which forms a smaller proportion of world trade than do exports - ranging from 0. In , agriculture still accounted for 47 percent of total exports from East Africa, whereas in West and Central Africa agriculture's share of total exports have dropped from over 70 percent in to only 9 to 10 percent in , partly as a consequence of the development of petroleum exports.
Over the same period, in Southern Africa, agricultural exports declined from 59 percent to 14 percent of total exports due to expansion of non-agricultural sectors. The region's principal agricultural exports are cocoa, coffee and cotton. Cocoa accounted for 22 percent of total agricultural exports in Central Africa and 48 percent in West Africa.
For coffee, the share varied between 12 and 25 percent in West Africa and East Africa respectively. For cotton, the range was between five percent in East Africa and 26 percent in Central Africa. In Southern Africa, by contrast, the major exports were sugar, wine and fruits - mainly from the Republic of South Africa. Over the past three decades, there has been a broad stability in the proportion of agricultural products in total imports to the region.
This now ranges from a high of around of 20 percent in Central Africa, to 15 percent in East Africa and West Africa and a low of 8 to 12 percent in Southern Africa. The main agricultural imports consist of cereals wheat, rice and maize. Over the past 30 years, these have risen from five percent of total cereal consumption to 14 percent. If these trends continue, in the region would need to import an estimated one-sixth of its total cereal requirements.
Most cereal imports have been made on a commercial basis, rather than as food aid. Except in a few years, food aid has represented less than half of cereal imports and the proportion for 17 percent was lower than in 25 percent. Nonetheless, in per capita food aid flows were three times as large as food aid flows to Asia and Latin America.
Structural adjustment programmes have been implemented in many countries in the region. Whilst these programmes have conferred macroeconomic stability on many economies, farmers have faced declining terms of trade and poorer access to many agricultural inputs such as improved seed and agro-chemicals, as well as lower and more uncertain grain prices. These effects are particularly evident in the Maize Mixed Farming System where, over the years, considerable public sector investment has been directed towards input distribution.
The Farmers Marketing Board FMB in Malawi, for example, established high quality grain buying and marketing depots at all main centres throughout the late s and s. As diversification opportunities were recognised, it renamed itself and became involved with a number of quasi-commercial activities, including the production and processing of non-traditional crops, plantation crops, canning and similar specialised activities.
The effects of structural adjustment on cash crop producers have been more mixed and largely reflect movements in international commodity prices. Cashew in Tanzania, for example, has experienced a boom-bust cycle, as production grew rapidly in the face of high international prices in the s and then crashed spectacularly at the beginning of the next decade when prices slumped.
As part of the structural adjustment process, governments have focused on the core facilitation roles of Ministries of Agriculture MOA. Despite the simultaneous emphasis on decentralization in many countries, local government structures have suffered progressively reduced budgets, resulting in cuts of staff and service delivery capacity.
In most cases the private sector has not yet filled the vacuum, and it is not clear how long this will take To improve this situation, external support has been channelled through public and civil society channels for small business development, including village entrepreneurs. Rural areas in many African countries have benefited from a slow but steady increase in public goods during the past 30 years.
However, the transition to private sector involvement and cost recovery for services have been difficult in many countries. In general, the immediate effect of reduced public expenditure has been a crisis in the maintenance of infrastructure e. The reduction in government expenditure on extension and agricultural training in many countries, during the past decade, has reduced the access of farmers to technology and market information.
It is expected that existing alternative sources of information will expand and new channels for agricultural information flows to rural areas will emerge, including the Internet. Already farmers' organisations in a number of countries have increased their extension and training activities; and internet connectivity is being supported.
In addition, the private sector's role in technical and market information provision is expected to expand greatly during the coming three decades. On the basis of their potentials for poverty reduction and agricultural growth 22 , as well as their importance in demographic terms, five farming systems have been selected for analysis of strategic priorities, namely the:. The greatest overall agricultural growth potential in the immediate future is found in the Irrigated and Cereal-Root Crop Systems.
The trends, issues and priorities for each of these five systems are considered in turn below. The development of the first two systems would be expected to lead directly to both agricultural growth and poverty reduction. The development of the third and fourth would have a greater impact on agricultural growth, and only indirectly alleviate poverty.
The fifth system offers the possibility of modest poverty reduction, although the growth dividend would be limited. This farming system serves as the food basket of the East and Southern Africa region see Box 2.
Both local and hybrid maize are grown and the former is often preferred for home consumption because of its better taste - in spite of lower yields. Minor crops include pulses and oilseeds which, like maize, are grown as dual-purpose subsistence and cash crops. Cash crops include coffee, tobacco, groundnuts and sunflower. Cattle are the most important livestock species.
Crop-livestock integration is strong; oxen often prepare land 23 , dung is collected and used to manure the fields, and animals are increasingly stall-fed on crop residues supplemented by cut fodder from fodder trees, hedges or forage plots. Although livestock density is higher than in any other production system in the region, most farmers cannot afford to keep more than two oxen and one milking cow, plus one or two calves or heifers. Maize Mixed Farming System.
Although the maize belt suffers during major droughts, drought is not the main cause of poverty. In areas with low population density, the majority of households are able to produce enough grain to feed themselves, but households with less than 0. Crop failure can occur in severe drought years. Livelihood diversification is a hedge against bad weather and marketing risks. The main causes of poverty are; very small farm size or landlessness, lack of oxen, low off-farm income and deteriorating terms of trade for maize producers.
A typical household in the Maize Mixed System is briefly described in Box 2. Differences in wealth are partly explained by differences in off-farm earnings and their re-investment in farming or commercial enterprises, not by differences in farm income.
Nonetheless, the upper stratum of farm families has more and better farmland, more crossbred dairy cattle and larger areas of cash crops. Irrigation is more likely to be found on medium and larger farms. They also use more fertiliser, agro-chemicals and hybrid seed, as well as taking more credit.
Poor households consist of landless or marginal farmers, often with no cattle 40 percent of households , no regular off-farm earnings and no high value crops. They grow mostly local maize for home consumption and cannot afford to buy fertiliser or hybrid seeds. A typical middle stratum household would include a husband, wife and four of their own children plus an older relative and several orphans left by one of the husband's deceased brothers.
They would live directly on their farmland in a dispersed homestead. It would have a cropped area of 1. The family would own 2 or 3 cattle and use its oxen to plough the land. It would obtain average yields of 1. Maize and other cereals would account for 80 percent of total food production, pulses for nine percent, cassava for eight percent and oilseeds for the rest. The household would be food self-sufficient in average to good years and in deficit during drought years.
One son works outside the farm and sends occasional remittances, used to pay for school fees and clothes. Home-grown maize is the main source of subsistence and, cash is obtained either from off-farm activities or from the sale of agricultural products, such as maize, tobacco or coffee and milk. Income would formerly have been above the poverty line.
A poor household in the same community would have less than 0. It would have no cattle but might own a goat and a couple of chickens. Women, often widows of migrant workers who died of AIDS and left them with children to support, would head many such households. It was formerly assumed that smallholder maize production in East and Southern Africa could be boosted by a combination of high doses of inorganic fertilisers and hybrid varieties; and indeed much of the extension effort over the past two decades in Kenya, Zambia, Tanzania and Malawi focused on promoting these technologies.
Once subsidies on inputs and guaranteed product prices were removed, and the full brunt of devaluation came to be felt, use of high-cost inputs on maize became uneconomic. As a consequence, farmers have reverted to cultivating traditional varieties where available, and even to growing substitute crops such as sorghum and sweet potatoes.
In former maize-exporting areas such as the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and Central Province in Zambia, use of purchased seed and fertiliser has fallen sharply. However, in the future, the effectiveness of agricultural support systems - notably marketing - may be restored, at which stage a shift to intensification and diversification is likely.
Following the removal of input subsidies, dismantling of price supports, withdrawal of the state from grain purchasing and abolition of pan-territorial pricing, most smallholders have been struggling to adjust to rising input prices and declining maize prices.
Smallholder input supply, credit and marketing services have collapsed and the private sector response has been less than anticipated. In keeping with policy reforms, governments were advised to withdraw from seed production and leave it to private seed companies.
However, the private companies were only interested in hybrid maize; they were not interested in open pollinated varieties because farmers can save their seed for up to three seasons before renewing it. Hence smallholder access to farm inputs, credit, markets and good quality open-pollinated seed remains a problem. As a result of rapid population growth, average farm sizes have fallen to under 0. This size is not viable under these conditions, without supplementary off-farm earnings.
In some Communal Areas in Zimbabwe, there is no longer sufficient grazing land to support enough cattle to plough the land or manure the fields. There are signs of serious fertility decline and increasing soil acidity in some instances where there has been prolonged use of inorganic fertilisers. Key issues include the high cost of mineral fertiliser relative to the price of maize - given existing productivity levels - the difficulty of maintaining soil fertility, shortage of livestock to produce manure due to feed shortage and shortage of oxen for farm power.
One well-known response to this situation is the Starter Pack Programme in Malawi, which distributed subsidised seed and fertiliser very widely and has successfully increased national maize production.
Whilst the fiscal sustainability of such a programme is questionable, the initiative has eliminated maize imports and even led to a surplus of production. Even in the past, messages based on high external input use were often irrelevant to smallholders because the inputs were too costly and overlooked risk under rainfed conditions.
In practice, farmer and other civil society organisations are now organising farmer-based seed multiplication and dissemination of technical information, and are beginning to fill the void left by government extension services. In the short term, the major input supply and produce marketing issues are unlikely to be resolved.
In the absence of targeted policies and programmes, land degradation is likely to spread and exert further downward pressure on crop yields. Through these processes the incidence and severity of chronic poverty are likely to increase, leading to the risk of disastrous famines when rains fail. The declining trend in maize surpluses marketed by farmers will threaten national food security in bad seasons and could force governments to import food to feed the cities.
There are signs of entrepreneurs establishing themselves in rural areas. Access to transport, a line of credit and a market in the neighbouring communities and towns have encouraged the initiation of small-scale processing, for example, for threshing, oil extraction, milling, cleaning, bagging and similar activities.
For example, the Rwembo Multipurpose Women's Association of Kasese in Western Uganda comprising just 20 families established a maize mill in Just one year later the mill has a throughput of t per annum and the Association is seeking to extend into food processing. Whilst the Maize Mixed System is currently in crisis, its long-term prospects are positive.
In some parts, household strategies for escape from poverty focus on area expansion. In other more densely populated areas with better services, intensification and especially diversification out of maize into higher value cash crops and livestock, along with increasing off-farm income, are more important strategies for poverty reduction.
Implementation of these strategies depends on private sector investment for the development of viable input and output marketing. Productive and profitable technologies and practices for improved soil fertility management - and more generally, improved land management and diversification - are essential. Although significant diversification to non-food crops and livestock is expected in the medium term, this system will still continue to be the food basket of the sub-region and to underpin urban food security.
To address farmers' problems related to declining soil fertility, one main strategic option is to improve land husbandry, by implementing such approaches as conservation farming see Box 2.
This lowers cultivation costs, saves time in land preparation, makes the best use of rainfall and creates optimum growing conditions through timely planting. It also maximises in situ moisture retention by maintaining "open" soil surface conditions and a deep rooting zone - possibly using biological means of breaking dense soil layers such as plough pans.
At the same time, it raises soil fertility through: Application of purchased phosphate or lime may also have to be part of the fertility management strategy. Conservation Agriculture is a farming approach which has the main aim of making more efficient use of the soil, water and biological resources and natural processes through improved soil-water-plant nutrient management. The Better Land Husbandry approach is fully in line with, and encompasses, the principles of Conservation Agriculture.
Conservation Agriculture contributes to environmental conservation as well as to enhanced and sustained agricultural productivity. The key principles of Conservation Agriculture are ensuring the recycling and restoration of soil nutrients and organic matter and optimal use of rainfall through retention and better use of biomass, moisture and nutrients.
One key aspect is retaining, where possible, a permanent soil cover which implies zero or minimum tillage and often entails the use of green manure crops. In extreme arid and semiarid environments this may be reduced to maintaining below-ground root systems, as the above-ground biomass may be totally desiccated and lost. As a result of soil cover by vegetation and residues, soil erosion and water loss through runoff are eliminated or greatly reduced, crop production is more reliable and less vulnerable to climatic vagaries and higher yields can be obtained.
Conservation Agriculture requires systematic interplanting and cropping sequences. Not only does it improve and especially stabilise yields in risky environments, it also reduces production costs, including costs of farm labour and farm power, due to reduction or elimination of tillage and, once established, of weeding requirements.
Conservation Agriculture is extensively practised in Brazil through its spontaneous adoption and adaptation to suit different farm contexts and farming systems. Problems of soil erosion - and, in drier areas, vulnerability to drought - have decreased significantly and farm output has increased leading to improved farmers' welfare and security.
The African Conservation Tillage Network is contributing to its development and expansion in different environments. To address pest problems without recourse to costly and environmentally damaging pesticides, the main option is to apply IPM or the recently-demonstrated push-pull methods 24 , with a special emphasis on weed especially striga control - for which rotations and phosphate application are important ingredients - combined with use of disease-resistant varieties and improved crop storage e.
In areas with low population density and where there are no restrictive tenure practices in place, labour rather than land becomes the key constraint. This situation strengthens interest in such technologies as zero tillage with draft animal power and conservation farming to allow dry season land preparation when labour demand is slack.
There is also scope for integration of soybean into the rotation, and for promoting farmer-based multiplication of seeds and planting materials. Ultimately, sustainable land management and soil nutrient capitalisation depend upon secure and equitable access to resources, and especially land and water. Various models to promote secure access to land by poor farmers have been promoted in the region, often with disappointing results. Among the novel tenure models being tested, one community-based model that is dependent upon customary tenure and community control is thought to hold particular promise see Box 2.
Problems related to land rights and tenure are common across Sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to expanding access to credit and limiting existing disputes, developing effective tenure systems can have a profound impact on the ability of communities to enter into productive partnership arrangements and to intensify production.
A programme initiated in the mids in Mozambique has developed new policy and legal measures for smallholders, under which existing land rights are secured and new investment into rural areas is promoted.
These rights are identical to those which would be obtained by private investors seeking land through a formal request to the State still the owner of all land under the present Constitution. The use of the farming systems approach has been critical in developing a new legal framework that protects all resources and not just areas physically occupied and presently under cultivation. The new framework also offers a legal mechanism to support farm communities in reaching mutually advantageous joint-venture arrangements with agri-business investors.
This access is achieved through consultation with local people and agreements over land use, joint ventures, employment and other concrete resources that bring benefits to both the community and the investor. Although the new policies and legislation are recently established, there are already clear indications that local communities are gaining a clearer understanding of both their land rights and the real value and potential of their resources.
Farming systems are not only strengthened, but are permitted to adapt to provide new incomes and employment sources for local people.
This relatively low-cost approach could provide a key input to investment support programmes throughout the African continent where similar land and farming systems problems are found. For areas of high density, the emphasis shifts towards maximising returns to land, particularly through converting amply available labour into increased output. In such areas, it is important to increase the amount of land available for cultivation each year e.
It is also important, to the extent that markets allow, to encourage a shift out of maize and other low-value crops towards high-value crops such as beans, sunflower, tobacco, vegetables, perennials and flowers. Diversification could also involve development of low-lying areas for irrigated or rainfed vegetable production, introduction of improved sunflower varieties and manual oilseed presses, promotion of intensive dairying and small-scale pig and poultry production, as well as aquaculture for urban markets.
Low maize prices can also be addressed by the promotion of off-farm activities with strong linkages to agriculture. Farmers' problems of inadequate access to input supply, credit and marketing services can be minimised by promoting group activities such as bulk buying, rotational savings or joint marketing, as well as through promotion of sustainable rural micro-finance institutions capable of meeting farmers' seasonal credit needs.
Problems of access to good quality open-pollinated seeds can be addressed by promoting farmer-based seed multiplication see Box 2. The seed sector in Zambia faces problems common to other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Firstly, the Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries MAFF , which develops the majority of new crop varieties, does not have adequate resources to meet the costs of bulking and distributing seeds of such varieties. Secondly, the private sector is not keen to invest in the types of crops preferred by smallholders, as most retain seed from season to season, limiting future sales.
The main agricultural activity of CARE's Livingstone Food Security Project has been the introduction of drought tolerant varieties of a number of crops - including varieties of maize, sorghum and cowpea - through a community-based seed bulking and distribution scheme.
Related crops and soils agronomy information, seed handling and post harvest storage topics have been included in the extension messages shared with farmers.
In the pilot phase farmers participated, virtually on an individual basis. For the season, a group approach was introduced and over farmers participated. A further expansion of the scheme in increased the number of participating farmers to , and over by season.