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The risk of comorbidity associated with excess adipose tissue increases with BMIs in this range and above. Footnotes Originally approved Promoting other forms of mass fortification In addition to salt, UNICEF supports national governments to develop food fortification programmes for vitamin A, iron and folic acid. Weight management through lifestyle modification for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: Moderate alcohol consumption lowers the risk of type 2 diabetes:
Family of Products
This indicator reflects the capacity of a country to train professionals in nutrition in terms of having national higher education institutions offering training in nutrition. This indicator is defined as the existence of higher education institutions offering training in nutrition in the country. Higher education training institutions include universities and other schools offering graduate and post-graduate degrees in nutrition or dietetics, including public health nutrition, community nutrition, food and nutrition policy, clinical nutrition, nutrition science and epidemiology.
Trained nutrition professionals work at facilities including health facilities as well as at population and community levels and may influence nutrition policies, and designing and implementation of nutrition intervention programmes at various levels.
They also play an important role in training of other health and non-health cadres to plan and deliver nutrition interventions in various settings. It is recognized that availability, within a country, of sufficient workforce with appropriate training in nutrition will lead to better outcomes for country-specific nutrition and health concerns. A competency framework for global public health nutrition workforce development: World Public Health Nutrition Association.
Registering as Registered Nutritionist. Building systemic capacity for nutrition: Nutrition is part of medical curricula. This indicator reflects the inclusion of maternal, infant and young child nutrition in pre-service training of health personnel.
This indicator is defined as the existence of pre-service training in maternal, infant and young child nutrition for health personnel. The survey investigates training in three key areas of maternal, infant and young child nutrition, namely growth monitoring and promotion, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and management of severe or moderate acute malnutrition. The first two of these three training topics are relevant for all forms of malnutrition, whereas the third topic only pertains to undernutrition.
Training on other topics e. Adequate training of health professionals is essential to ensure that nutrition activities are included in their regular health care activities. Nutrition counseling training changes physician behavior and improves caregiver knowledge acquisition. Nutrition Journal ; Trained nutrition professionals density.
The focus of the nutrition professional indicator is on individuals trained to pursue a nutrition professional career, described in most countries as dieticians or nutritionists including nutrition scientists, nutritional epidemiologists and public health nutritionists.
These individuals are trained sufficiently in nutrition practice to demonstrate defined competencies and to meet certification or registration requirements of national or global nutrition or dietetics professional organizations. Dieticians and nutritionists may complete the same training and perform the same functions in some countries but not others.
This indicator is defined as the number of trained nutrition professionals per , population in the country in a specified year. Validation of the indicator has shown that it can predict several maternal, infant and young child nutrition outcomes. Global nutrition monitoring framework: Density of nurses and midwi ves. Nurse and midwife density indicates whether nurses and midwifery personnel are available to address the health care needs of a given population.
It is the number of nursing and midwifery personnel and density per 10 population. These personnel include professional nurses, professional midwives, auxiliary nurses, auxiliary midwives, enrolled nurses, enrolled midwives and other personnel, such as dental nurses and primary care nurses.
Traditional attendants are not counted here but as community or traditional health workers. There is no gold standard for a sufficient health workforce to address the health care needs of a given population. It has been estimated, however, that countries with fewer than 25 health-care professionals counting only physicians, nurses and midwives per 10 population fail to achieve adequate coverage rates for selected primary health care interventions that are priorities in the Millennium Development Goals.
The World Health Report Working together for health. The World Health Report papers. G ross domestic product per capita and annual growth rate. GDP per capita purchasing power parity is the GDP divided by the midyear population, where GDP is the total value of goods and services for final use produced by resident producers in an economy, regardless of the allocation to domestic and foreign claims. It does not include deductions for depreciation of physical capital or depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Purchasing power parity indicates the rate of exchange that accounts for price differences across countries, allowing international comparisons of real output and incomes. Purchasing power parity rates allow standard comparisons of real prices among countries, just as conventional price indexes allow comparisons of real values over time; use of normal exchange rates could result in over - or undervaluation of purchasing power.
GDP per capita annual growth rate is defined as the least squares annual growth rate, calculated from constant price GDP per capita in local currency units. Higher income is usually associated with lower rates of mal nutrition. Improving income however, reduces mal nutrition to only a small degree World Bank On the basis of the correlation between growth and nutrition , it is estimated that a sustained per capita economic growth of 2.
These estimates suggest that countries cannot depend on economic growth alone to reduce mal nutrition within an acceptable time. Repositioning nutrition as central to development. A strategy for large-scale action , Human solidarity in a divided world , Official development assistance received net disbursements as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product GDP is a measure of the flow of aid, private capital and debt in comparison with the value of goods and services produced within the country.
This indicator is official development assistance received as a percentage of the GDP. Net official development assistance consists of grants or loans to countries or territories from the official sector, with the main objective of promoting economic development and welfare, at concessional financial terms.
GDP is the total value of final goods and services produced within a country's borders in a year, regardless of ownership. When official development assistance makes up a large proportion of the GDP, a country is highly aid dependent, with the risk of unpredictable aid and donor-driven aid programmes. This can affect the resources allocated to nutrition , which are often not a donor priority in the sector-wide aid strategies promoted by the Paris Declaration Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness: This indicator identifies countries with low income and food inadequacy.
A country is classified by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization FAO as 'low-income food-deficit' for analytical purposes on the basis of low income and food inadequacy, and the status is agreed by the country itself. The classification applies to countries that have a per capita income below the ceiling used by the World Bank to determine eligibility for International Development Association assistance and for year terms determined by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, applied to countries included in World Bank categories I and II.
The second criterion is based on the net i. Trade volumes of a broad range of basic foodstuffs cereals, roots and tubers, pulses, oilseeds and oils other than tree crop oils, meat and dairy products are converted and aggregated by the calorie content of individual commodities. The third criterion, which is self-exclusion, is applied when countries that meet the above two criteria specifically request to be excluded from the low-income food-deficit category.
In order to avoid too frequent changes of low-income food-deficit status, usually reflecting short-term, exogenous shocks, an additional factor is taken into consideration.
This factor, called 'persistence of position', postpones the 'exit' of a country from the list even if it does not meet the low-income or the food-deficit criterion, until the change in its status is verified for 3 consecutive years.
In other words, a country is taken off the list in the fourth year after confirming a sustained improvement in its position.
During these 3 years, the country is considered to be in a transitional phase. The rationale behind the low-income food-deficit classification is that being both food deficit and having a low income at the same time means that the country lacks the resources not only to import food but also to produce sufficient amounts domestically.
It is the combination of these two factors that makes these countries both food insecure and susceptible to domestic and external shocks, which could affect the nutrition al status of vulnerable populations. The low-income food-deficit list is intended to capture this aspect of the food problem. In comparison with countries in other classifications commonly used for analytical and operational purposes, e.
Committee on World Food Security. Rome , June Averaged aggregate governance indicators. The world governance indicators of the World Bank Institute define governance as the traditions and institutions by which authority in a country is exercised. This includes the process by which governments are selected, monitored and replaced; the capacity of the government to formulate and implement sound policies effectively; and the respect of citizens and the state for the institutions that govern economic and social interactions among them.
The world governance indicators measure six broad definitions of governance, capturing the key elements of this definition: The averaged aggregate governance indicators in the NLIS country profile represent the aggregated average of the six world governance indicators.
The indicators represent the views of thousands of stakeholders worldwide, including respondents to household and firm surveys and experts from nongovernmental organizations, public sector agencies and providers of commercial business information. The NLIS averaged aggregate governance indicators are calculated from the average of the z scores a measure of standard deviations away from the mean of the six world governance indicators.
Each of the six indicators are expressed as the standard normal units, ranging from around The higher the score a country has, the better the assessment has it received regarding the six governance elements. Policy-makers, civil society groups, aid donors and scholars around the world increasingly agree that good governance affects development.
This consensus has emerged from a proliferation of empirical measures of institutional quality and governance, the investment climate and research World Bank Institute, For nutrition , the importance of good governance is reflected in the UNICEF conceptual framework of factors in the "control and management of resources influenced by political and ideological structures in society'' Jonsson Good governance is also recognized by countries themselves in the Voluntary Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security FAO as an essential factor for sustained economic growth, sustainable development, the eradication of poverty and hunger and the realization of all human rights, including the right to adequate food.
Voluntary guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security , Towards an improved strategy for nutrition surveillance. Food and Nutrition Bulletin , United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition. The fifth report on the world nutrition situation: The Worldwide Governance Indicators: Methodology and Analytical Issues September Gender inequality index GII.
The Gender Inequality Index is a composite measure reflecting inequality in achievements between women and men in three dimensions: It varies between zero when women and men fare equally and one when men or women fare poorly compared to the other in all dimensions. The Gender Inequality Index is designed to reveal the extent to which national human development achievements are eroded by gender inequality, and to provide empirical foundations for policy analysis and advocacy efforts.
Low status restricts women's opportunities and freedom, giving them less interaction with others and fewer opportunities for independent behaviour, restricting the transmission of new knowledge and damaging their self-esteem and expression. It is a particularly important determinant of two resources for care: Low status restricts women's capacity to act in their own and their children's best interests. There is a demonstrated association between women's status and malnutrition in children.
Human Development Report Gender and Human Development. Challenges for the 21st century: Gender Parity Index in primary level enrolment. This indicator of gender equality is also an indicator of Millennium Development Goal 3: The ratio of girls to boys, the gender parity index, in primary education is the ratio of the number of female students enrolled at the primary level of education to the number of male students.
To standardize the effects of the population structure of the appropriate age groups, the gross enrolment ratio for each level of education is used. The gross enrolment ratio is the number of students enrolled in primary, secondary and tertiary education, regardless of age, as a percentage of the population of official school age for the three levels.
There is a demonstrated association between women's status and mal nutrition in children. United Nations Statistics Division. Millennium Development Goals indicators. Promote gender equality and empower women. Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by , and in all levels of education no later than The global hunger index is a means of monitoring whether countries are achieving the hunger-related Millennium Development Goals. It can be used for international ranking.
The global hunger index captures three dimensions of hunger: Accordingly, the index includes three equally weighted indicators: In order to identify countries that are notably better or worse off with regard to hunger and undernutrition than would be expected from their gross national income per capita, a regression analysis is made of the global hunger index on gross national income per capita.
Countries are ranked on a point scale, with 0 and being the best and worst possible scores, respectively. Hunger is one of the world's major problems and therefore one of its most important challenges. Hunger and undernourishment form a vicious circle, which is often 'passed on' from generation to generation: The children of impoverished parents are often born underweight and are less resistant to disease; they grow up under conditions that impair their intellectual capacity for the whole of their life.
As of , FAO estimates that 1. This is the highest number since , the earliest year for which comparable statistics are available. The factors that contribute to a high global hunger index are: Countries with high hunger indexes are overwhelmingly low- or low- to middle-income countries with high levels of poverty.
Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia are the regions with the highest global hunger indexes and the highest poverty rates. These have been major causes of widespread poverty and food insecurity in most countries with high global hunger indexes. The 15 countries with the highest global hunger indexes were consistently rated by the 'Freedom House Index' as non-free or partially free with regard to political rights and civil liberties in the period Low women's status is an important contributor to child malnutrition, which in turn accounts for high global hunger indexes for South Asian countries.
Well-designed, well-implemented health and nutrition services can reduce child malnutrition substantially. Many of the countries with high global hunger indexes, especially in South Asia, do not have effective health and nutrition services that reach the most vulnerable age groups pre-pregnancy through 2 years of age. International Food Policy Research Institute. International Food Policy Research Institute, Economic crises - impacts and lessons learned.
Rome, Food and Agriculture of the United Nations, The challenge of hunger Measures being taken to reduce acute undernourishment and chronic hunger. A global hunger index. The human development index is a summary measure of human development. The human development index is a summary composite measure of a country's average achievements in three basic aspects of human development: It is a measure of the average achievements in a country in three dimensions of human development: The HDI sets a minimum and a maximum for each dimension, called goalposts, and then shows where each country stands in relation to these goalposts, expressed as a value between 0 and 1.
The higher a country's human development, the higher its HDI value. The human development index is used to capture the attention of policy-makers, the media and nongovernmental organizations and to draw it away from the usual economic statistics to focus on human outcomes.
It was created to re-emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth. The human development index is also used to question national policy choices, to determine how two countries with the same level of income per person can have widely different human development outcomes.
For example, two countries may have similar income per person, but the life expectancy and literacy differ greatly, so that one of the countries has a much higher human development index than the other. These contrasts stimulate debate on government policies on health and education, to determine why what is achieved in one country is beyond the reach of the other.
The human development index is also used to highlight differences within countries, between provinces or states, across genders, ethnicity and other socioeconomic groupings. Highlighting internal disparities along these lines has raised national debate in many countries. The human development index. New Controversies, Old Critiques. Seats held by women in national parliament. This is an indicator of gender equality and empowerment of women and reflects Millennium Development Goal 3, to promote gender equality and empower women.
Women's representation in parliaments is one aspect of their opportunities in political and public life, and it is therefore linked to women's empowerment. The proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments is obtained by dividing the number of parliamentary seats occupied by women by the total number of seats occupied.
National parliaments consist of one or two chambers. For international comparisons, generally only the single or lower house is considered in calculating the indicator. Women are underrepresented in all decision-making bodies and political parties, particularly at the higher echelons. Women still face many practical obstacles to the full exercise of their role in political life.
Smith LC, Haddad L. Explaining child mal nutrition in developing countries: Indicators for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals. Definitions, rationale, concepts and sources. Search Search the WHO. Afghanistan What are the current states of indicators contributing to a comprehensive view of nutrition for health and development in Afghanistan?
Source of data WHO. Source of data Stevens GA et al. Moderate public health problem Reference: Source of data Micronutrients Database [online database]. Source Millennium Development Goals indicators database. Source Demographic and Health Surveys. Iron and folic acid: Source Currently no data are available. Further reading Rehydration Project.
Early initiation of breastfeeding What does this indicator tell us? Infants under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed What does this indicator tell us? Infants aged 6—8 months who receive solid, semisolid or soft foods What does this indicator tell us?
Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum dietary diversity What does this indicator tell us? Children aged 6—23 months who receive a minimum acceptable diet What does this indicator tell us?
Source of all infant and young child feeding indicators WHO. Sources and further reading World Bank. Further reading Engesveen K et al. Maternity and paternity at work: Law and practice across the world. The legislative data are collected by ILO through periodical reviews of national labour and social security legislation and secondary sources, such as the International Social Security Association and International Network on Leave Policies and Research; as well as consultations with ILO experts in regional and national ILO offices around the world The composite indicator on maternity protection included in the Global Nutrition Monitoring Framework is currently defined as whether the country has maternity protection laws or regulations in place compliant with the provisions for leave duration, remuneration and source of cash benefits in Convention Source The World Bank.
Further reading Committee on World Food Security. Landscape Analysis more information: Overview Typologies Country assessments Publications and information. NLiS more information Country profiles Search data. No public health problem Mild public health problem Moderate public health problem Severe public health problem. Cut-off values for public health significance Indicator.
Cut-off values for public health significance in different target groups Indicator. International Code on Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes: Afghanistan National Development Strategy: MNP for children in 4 districts of 2 provinces - Multiple micronutrient powder point-of-use fortification.
Afghanistan program to address micronutrient deficiency disorders - Multiple micronutrient powder point-of-use fortification. To answer these questions required the evolution of a precise testing system, built on the pioneering work of Frances Pottenger in the s, Royal Lee in the s, and a handful of others. The technology is complete, and the results are unvarying given proper training.
Qualified practitioners can assess the status of the autonomic nervous system and design a precise nutritional program that will rebuild the compromised systems in the sequence dictated by the body's needs. Ulan wants to invite you to join his enthusiastic "army" of like-minded practitioners who, with the knowledge and techniques offered here, are bringing a new and exciting health care paradigm to America. Ulan Nutritional Systems, Inc. Events in Your Area.
Nutrition Response Testing Clearwater Workshop. Advanced Patient Management Skills. Advanced Practice Management Skills. About Nutrition Response Testing. About Ulan Nutritional Systems. Laws regulating the discharge and treatment of sewage have led to dramatic nutrient reductions to surrounding ecosystems,  but it is generally agreed that a policy regulating agricultural use of fertilizer and animal waste must be imposed. In Japan the amount of nitrogen produced by livestock is adequate to serve the fertilizer needs for the agriculture industry.
Policy concerning the prevention and reduction of eutrophication can be broken down into four sectors: Technologies, public participation, economic instruments, and cooperation.
As mentioned before, nonpoint sources of pollution are the primary contributors to eutrophication, and their effects can be easily minimized through common agricultural practices. Reducing the amount of pollutants that reach a watershed can be achieved through the protection of its forest cover, reducing the amount of erosion leeching into a watershed. Also, through the efficient, controlled use of land using sustainable agricultural practices to minimize land degradation, the amount of soil runoff and nitrogen-based fertilizers reaching a watershed can be reduced.
Because a major contributor to the nonpoint source nutrient loading of water bodies is untreated domestic sewage, it is necessary to provide treatment facilities to highly urbanized areas, particularly those in underdeveloped nations, in which treatment of domestic waste water is a scarcity. The role of the public is a major factor for the effective prevention of eutrophication. In order for a policy to have any effect, the public must be aware of their contribution to the problem, and ways in which they can reduce their effects.
Programs instituted to promote participation in the recycling and elimination of wastes, as well as education on the issue of rational water use are necessary to protect water quality within urbanized areas and adjacent water bodies.
Economic instruments, "which include, among others, property rights, water markets, fiscal and financial instruments, charge systems and liability systems, are gradually becoming a substantive component of the management tool set used for pollution control and water allocation decisions. By internalizing the costs associated with the negative effects on the environment, governments are able to encourage a cleaner water management.
Because a body of water can have an effect on a range of people reaching far beyond that of the watershed, cooperation between different organizations is necessary to prevent the intrusion of contaminants that can lead to eutrophication.
Agencies ranging from state governments to those of water resource management and non-governmental organizations, going as low as the local population, are responsible for preventing eutrophication of water bodies.
In the United States, the most well known inter-state effort to prevent eutrophication is the Chesapeake Bay. Soil Nitrogen Testing N-Testing is a technique that helps farmers optimize the amount of fertilizer applied to crops.
By testing fields with this method, farmers saw a decrease in fertilizer application costs, a decrease in nitrogen lost to surrounding sources, or both. There has been a study that found that organically fertilized fields "significantly reduce harmful nitrate leaching" over conventionally fertilized fields. Dredging helps in reduction of soil contamination that was caused by sewage sludge like fecal sludge , wilted plants, or chemical spill. Bokashi is a modern method of eutrophication prevention to decrease smell and toxic materials.
After a few weeks, they would bury the waste. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Causes, Consequences, and Controls in Aquatic Ecosystems". Retrieved 10 March Nasir and Mohammad, F.
Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University. Skulberg Chapter 1. Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, monitoring and management. Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science , Vol. Impacts of excess nutrient inputs on freshwater, marine, and terrestrial ecosystems". Environmental pollution Barking, Essex: Eutrophication, Causes, Consequences, Correctives. National Academy of Sciences, Washington D. A view from space". South African Journal of Science.
A review of realities and challenges". Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa. Sitting on the Horns of a Dilemma: Water as a Strategic Resource in South Africa. In Liberty, No 6, Issue South African Institute of Race Relations. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.
Humans as components of ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2 April Science of the Total Environment. A profitable solution for Swedish society" PDF. An Ecosystem Services Approach.
Effects on Plant Species Composition". The Journal of Applied Ecology. Present status and measures for sustainable agriculture". Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. An Integrated Approach to Eutrophication. International Environmental Technology Centre. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation. Department of Natural Resources, Maryland, U. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Defra Research Project IS