Bolivar Meza, Rosendo , Tendencias actuales de la izquierda en México: John Bokina and Timothy J. Engaging Hidden Identities," Metaphilosophy Archived from the original on January 5, Partial text available from Questia. Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture Winter , pdf
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Miller , showed in the Miller—Urey experiment that, if such a mixture be exposed to electric sparks and to water, it can interact to produce amino acids , commonly considered the building blocks of life. Urey spent a year as a visiting professor at Oxford University in England in and He was subsequently made a professor emeritus there from to In the late s and early s, space science became a topic of research in the wake of the launch of Sputnik I. Urey helped persuade NASA to make unmanned probes to the moon a priority.
When Apollo 11 returned moon rock samples from the moon, Urey examined them at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The samples supported Urey's contention that the moon and the Earth shared a common origin.
When asked why he continued to work so hard, he joked, "Well, you know I'm not on tenure anymore. Urey enjoyed gardening, and raising cattleya , cymbidium and other orchids. In he received the National Medal of Science.
Urey Prize , awarded for achievement in planetary sciences by the American Astronomical Society. Urey chair whose first holder is Jim Arnold.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Discovery of deuterium Miller—Urey experiment. Journal of Molecular Evolution. Urey was Noble Prize Winner in Chemistry". Archived from the original on January 5, Retrieved August 7, Chemical and Engineering News. Langmuir, Recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Retrieved April 6, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. Retrieved August 9, Urey Prize in Planetary Science". University of California, San Diego. Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Mitchell Herbert C. Ernst Rudolph A. Barry Sharpless John B. Yonath Richard F. United States National Medal of Science laureates.
Behavioral and social science. Roger Adams Othmar H. Anne Anastasi George J. Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes William Julius Wilson Rose Sewall Wright Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Horace Barker Bernard B. Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr. Barbara McClintock Albert B. Neel James Augustine Shannon Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer Stanley Cohen Donald A. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W.
Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin Daniel Nathans Salome G. Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F.
James Watson Robert A. Bruce Ames Janet Rowley Raven Carl Woese Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. McKusick Harold Varmus Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer Collins Elaine Fuchs J.
Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork Roald Hoffmann George C. Stockmayer Max Tishler Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A.
Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Cram Norman Hackerman Thomas Cech Isabella L. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon. Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe Benkovic Marye Anne Fox.
Klinman Jerrold Meinwald Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce Presper Eckert Nathan M. Terman Wernher von Braun Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller Robert Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr.
Quate John Roy Whinnery Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences. Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney Marshall Harvey Stone Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund Raoul Bott Michael Freedman Martin David Kruskal Richard Karp Stephen Smale Cathleen Synge Morawetz Felix Browder Ronald R. John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Golomb Barry Mazur Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell Lederman William Rubey Van Vleck Vladimir K.
Wheeler Saul Winstein Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Ramsey Jack Steinberger Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg Val Fitch Vera Rubin Albert Overhauser Frank Press Evangeline was age 28, and Stokowski gave his age as 38 he was actually By this time, he had conducted the Philadelphians for 15 years, and he seems to have wished for a break. He had long planned to take a vacation, but during , following his marriage to Evangeline Johnson, whom Leopold had married in January, , this planned vacation developed into a prolonged " leave of absence" from Philadelphia.
The reasons Stokowski gave for this leave were various, including discomfort in holding the baton or baguette, the French term, as he preferred to call it. Regarding the baton, Oliver Daniel states:. During the year Stoki complained frequently of neuritis. He was still using a baton and during concerts it was noticed that he often shifted it from one hand to the other. It will always remain a mystery whether the problems of neuritis were as serious as they seemed or whether it was a partial excuse to obtain a year's leave Perhaps Stokowski simply needed a prolonged rest from the Philadelphia Orchestra.
Evangeline and Luba had boarded at Boulogne, France, and Leopold joined them on board at Southampton. Leopold and Evangeline had previously reunited with Lyuba in Switzerland, after which they went to Paris at the end of the Summer of Stokowski at some point went on to London. The records do not definitively show whom Stokowski dismissed, except in a few cases. However, the March 3, issue of Time Magazine was explicit regarding some cases:.
Probable reason for their dismissal: At the same time, Stokowski hired a number of Curtis Institute students directly into the Philadelphia Orchestra even before they had graduated. He planned, raised funds, and pushed ahead against opposition from the Board of the Philadelphia Orchestra and some of his supporters to mount productions of Schoenberg's music drama Die glückliche Hand opus 18 , and a full ballet production of Stravinsky's Le Sacre du Printemps , with Martha Graham dancing the Sacrificial Maiden.
The three performances of these two works in Philadelphia and in New York City, partially sponsored by the League of Composers in April, sold out, justifying Stokowski's gamble that they would succeed 4. Financially, they were less successful, with the cost and also the uncompromising line Stokowski took with the Philadelphia Orchestra Board in the confrontation as to these productions leaving hard feelings that were to grow during the first half of the s.
The Association Board had yielded to all his demands, but it seems that Stokowski had had enough 3. The furor that announcement this might otherwise have caused was lessened by the previous two years of conflict between Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra Association Board, reported in detail in the press for many months, blow by blow. It would seem that most of the emotion related to Stokowski's decision, after more than 23 years as head of the Philadelphia Orchestra had become exhausted.
The announcement that Eugene Ormandy would be released from this Minneapolis Orchestra contract, and would become the new Music director of the Philadelphia Orchestra seems to have been met more with curiosity 3. This would be financed by RCA Victor records, and would include 33 concerts in 27 cities over 35 days.
This followed other reports of romance between Stokowski and Garbo. Evangeline later married Prince Zalstem-Zalessky, a descendent of a Russian noble family who died in , while Evangeline lived on to June 17, , dying at age However, Stokowski was active in Hollywood during this period, which led to involvement of the Philadelphia Orchestra in the historic Walt Disney film 'Fantasia'.
Walt Disney met Leopold Stokowski in Chasen's Restaurant in Hollywood in , and Stokowski offered to conduct the music for The Sorcerer's Apprentice free of charge, because of his interest in the project 3 note: Stokowski arrived in Los Angeles January 2, to record this music with a hand-picked orchestra of 85 Hollywood session musicians 3. Stokowski with Walt Disney in California, great shoes! These recordings had some technical difficulties as to synchronization, but Stokowski approved them and they were used in the final film.
However, Walt Disney had decided that The Sorcerer's Apprentice short film needed to be expanded to a full-length movie, in order to be financially viable. After discussing added musical selections with Stokowski, Disney secured the rights to Le Sacre du Printemps in April, In December, , Stravinsky visited the Disney studios, and although in later years he was critical of 'Fantasia', Stravinsky at the time seemed supportive.
There was later further criticism of Stokowski and Disney's music choices, particularly in editing the music. For example, the Beethoven Pastoral Symphony was cut in half to 22 minutes. Stokowski and Disney listened to dozens of different musical possibilities, including Rachmaninoff and Wagner 23 , and in the end added the Bach-Stokowski Toccata and Fugue in d minor, music from Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker, Ponchielli's Dance of the Hours , and Mussorgsky's Night on Bare Mountain to join the already selected L'Apprentie sorcière , Beethoven's Pastorale symphony, and Stravinsky's Le Sacre du Printemps.
Stokowski also convinced Disney to record in Philadelphia with the Philadelphia Orchestra, and recording took place in the Academy of Music in April , 23,26, It is beyond the scope of this web site to describe in any detail the resulting masterpiece film, but as well as Mickey as the Sorcerer's Apprentice, the many memorable scenes include the hippos as ballet dancers in Ponchielli's Dance of the Hours , and the Tyrannosaurus rex in the primeval world of Stravinksi's Le Sacre du Printemps.
Fantasia was issued in , and was released again many times, and continues even today in some theaters. It has been widely sold in DVD, in several restored versions. The music sound track of Fantasia by Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra has never been out of the recoding catalogues, since it was first issued by Disney Studios in the s, first in monaural and then in in stereo.
The original sound track was recorded optically on film, in a system called 'Fantasound', which was shown only in a limited number of select theaters with special equipment. Unfortunately, the original film masters seem to be either lost, or deteriorated beyond reproduction. While his Philadelphia Orchestra remained under exclusive contract to RCA, Stokowski would face no such constraints with an entirely new ensemble. And so he created one, arranged a contract with rival Columbia and then proceeded to cut with his new orchestra many of the works that RCA had wanted him to record Stokowski's contract with the Philadelphia Orchestra had also lapsed in So, he announced the creation of a new All-american Youth Orchestra and conducted auditions during April, May, and early June Stokowski auditioned perhaps young musicians from a much larger pre-screen group across the United States, selecting 90 players To these young players, Stokowski added a number of key 'ringers' - experienced Philadelphia Orchestra musicians - to form his All-American Youth Orchestra.
Following the conclusion of the tour, recording sessions with the All-American Youth Orchestra followed in Los Angeles 3 to 20 July by Columbia Records including two of the American contemporary pieces featured during the tour: Click here to read about the and All-American Youth Orchestra musicians and discograpy.
However, the recordings were less successful, perhaps due to fatigue. Technically, the recordings from both years were not up to the standards of recordings in Philadelphia by the Victor engineers. However, the records did introduce many listeners to the short-lived All-American Youth Orchestra made up of many musicians who would go on to orchestra careers. Toscanini indicated he would not continue with the orchestra for the season The letter was not a definitive rupture, but a decision Toscanini attributed to fatigue.
Sarnoff also avoided a permanent separation from Toscanini, but at the same time, took action to assured the NBC season by appointing Leopold Stokowski as conductor of the NBC Symphony concerts for that season.
This appointment of Stokowski was salutary for the NBC Symphony concerts, not only because of his great conducting abilities, but also for his typically innovative programming, which included many works, particularly contemporary, which were not in the Toscanini repertoire.
Another Symphony no 4 composed and performed in was by George Antheil. He also programmed such Stokowski specialties as Debussy's Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune , Tchaikovsky's Marche slave opus 31 and Symphony no 4 and several of the Stokowski orchestrations of Bach and Chopin.
Many of these performances were also recorded by RCA Victor and sold well. It also led to Toscanini's American premiere performance of the Shostakovich Symphony no 7 'Leningrad' on July 19, , and the well-known argument between Stokowski and Toscanini as to who should conduct the 'Leningrad' premiere.
Much has been written about the exchange between Toscanini and Stokowski over who would lead this American premiere. Stokowski ultimately settled for a later performance, which - perhaps to appease him - was billed at the 'first concert hall performance' This time, Stokowski did not walk out. He merely adjusted his timetable and stayed on. However, when he heard that Toscanini was to conduct the American premiere of Shostakovich's Seventh Symphony, which the composer dedicated to Russian heroism Immediately, he severed his association with NBC.
He threw himself into other activities A popular symphony with very low ticket prices was attractive at that point for Stokowski.
Their concerts were generally sold-out, and they made three recordings. However, with the orchestra Board seeking to cut expenses, and Stokowski seeking to expand the orchestra size and activity, a rupture resulted in which Stokowski resigned. Stokowski and Vanderbilt divorced in October Stokowski organized in the Summer of an new group called the "Hollywood Bowl Symphony Orchestra".
Stoki planned to change all that. He did choose a core of players from the Philharmonic, but to these he added many of the best players who were attached to the various movie studios. Stokowski and Judson had known each other for decades, and Stokowski understood Judson's central role as an impresario. At their meeting, Judson on behalf of the Philharmonic Board invited Stokowski to become the principal guest conductor of the New York Philharmonic.
As you can read in the biographical sketch of Artur Rodzinski , the Philharmonic was having difficulties in their contract negotiations with the Philharmonic Music Director Artur Rodzinski. Stokowski's first Philharmonic concert was on December 26, Just weeks later, during the first week of February , Artur Rodzinski resigned from the New York Philharmonic without completing the season.
The Haffner was Stokowski's only recording of a Mozart symphony, other than the May 9, acoustic recording of the third movement of the Symphony no 40 K Stokowski had given the premiere of the Charles Tomlinson Griffes tone poem The White Peacock during a concert of Friday, December 19, , along with two other Griffes compositions.
Sadly, Griffes died during the influenza epidemic only four months after this concert. Although not commercially recorded, a several good private recordings of this performance are available. Victor issued these recordings with the label: These recordings and their musicians were researched and described by the scholar and discographer James H. North, which you can read by clicking on Leopold Stokowski and "His Symphony Orchestra" , a fascinating article. During , Stokowski was a guest conductor of orchestras in Europe and the US, including at the Festival of Britain, his first conducting in the UK since his concert of June 14, This was apparently the case, since within days, Stokowski, then age 73 had signed a three year contract as Music Director of the Houston Symphony Orchestra beginning with the season.
Also, Stokowski insisted on calling the city "Hooo-stun", again perhaps not to the taste of Houstonians. However, Stokowski did bring excitement and television broadcasts, and an extensive recording program. As well as his exciting programming and reinvigorating of the Houston musical sceen, Stokowski brought an active recording program to Houston.
His recording program included: However, Stokowski spent less and less time in Houston and in , ended his work in Houston. The ending was somewhat traumatic, as it had been in Cincinnati, Philadelphia and the New York Philharmonic. In a letter sent to the Houston newspapers, Stokowski labeled the Houston Symphony Board as being narrow and also racist. So, in spite of several seasons of great music-making, and a string of fine recordings still admired today, the relationship did not end without fireworks.
The resulting February concerts were Stokowski's first with the Philadelphia Orchestra since April 3, Not only did Stokowski reseat the orchestra to his Philadelphia seating of two decades ago, he also had restored the metal conductor's podium which had been built for him in the s. These concerts were constructed with Stokowski's inspired programming, and were enthusiastically received by both the audience, with a sustained standing ovations, and by the critics.
Stokowski's success was recreated in New York and fine transcriptions of the concerts have since been issued, including from Pristine Classical.
Stokowski returned for subsequent Philadelphia seasons, including a Fiftieth Anniversary concert on February 8, , commemorating his first Philadelphia concert of October 11, Oliver Daniel wrote that " Dimitri Mitropoulos was to have conducted Puccini's Turandot at the Metropolitan Opera during February to April, , but his sudden, early death in November, at age 59 prevented this.
Stokowski was then invited by Rudolf Bing to conduct Turandot in Mitropoulos' place which Stokowski readily accepted. Despite great physical discomfort Stokowski had slipped why playing with his sons and had broken his hip in December, , Stokowski prepared thoroughly.
He detected errors in the printed score of the Puccini work, involved himself in lighting and costumes, and separately rehearsed singers and chorus. On opening night, the audience gave the cast and Stokowski an extended ovation.
Since so much controversial has been written about the Stokowski Turandot performances, the lengthy details are omitted here. Some critics appreciated the sonority and brilliance of the orchestra, but others heavily criticized the lack of Stokowski cues for the singers, and the lack of the orchestra following the singers and the stage action.
Particular comment centered on the baton-less, smooth gestures, perhaps less visible in the opera house. Robert Sabin in Musical America wrote:. The stage brass could not apparently see his beat given without stick and wavered in several places, though no such catastrophe occurred as did at one performance last season, when they came in fortissimo in the wrong place The eminent critic Winthrop writing in the New Yorker wrote:.
The conducting of Leopold Stokowski, who got to the podium on crutches he is still recovering from a serious accident to his hip , is extraordinarily dashing and vivid, and the cast is of such high quality that few opera houses in the world could touch it After the two performances [in December ] for which he had signed a contract, Stoki resigned Stokowski was strongly motivated by the idea to create a new, dynamic New York symphony orchestra, residing at Carnegie Hall, now that the New York Philharmonic had relocated to Lincoln Center.
Abram Chasins who knew at first hand Stokowski's opinions during that period wrote:. Never had he been more eager or ready to build an orchestra of his own - and in New York! However, Stokowski, somewhat in the manner of the All-American Youth Orchestra, auditioned and built an ensemble with a large percentage of youth, of women, and further including black and Asian musicians, in stark contrast to the established symphony orchestras.
Also, ticket prices were kept low, and the programming continued Stokowski's genius for the interesting and the innovative. The creation of the new orchestra did not proceed without problems, and in the end Stokowski needed to subsidize its creation, and bankroll its continuing financial deficits over the next decade. He also conducted without fee. Stokowski built a first line orchestra, and his programming continuing to be innovative, in contrast to the conservatism that often characterized New York City's established ensembles.
And Stokowski's string of great recordings continued with the American Symphony. Particularly remarkable was the first recording of the reconstructed score of Charles Ives Symphony no 4 recorded for Columbia on April 29 and 30, , with conductors David Katz and José Serebrier assisting in the multi-layered score.
The Ives Symphony no 4 is surely a landmark of recording by any measure. Having collected all the commercial recordings of this work I have ever seen, listening to several concert performances and listening again and again to the symphony in order to grasp it, it still seems unmatched.
Other conductors having decades more to digest and study this work have not equaled the integrity and inspiration of the Stokowski reading. Stokowski's reading will not soon be surpassed. During this period, he conducted approximately 25 concerts per season, with four rehearsals per concert. His relocation back to England, the country of his birth reflected this focus. By the early s, recording in the United States, and particularly in New York became so expensive that the major record companies more and more restricted their recording to Europe.
Particularly in London, with its five great orchestras was easier, and much cheaper costs and musician fees, London was one of the world's most favorable locations for Stokowski's recording projects.
Stokowski relocated to Hampshire, south of London in It coupled the Bizet - Symphony in C major recorded June 4, with his first commercial recording of a Mendelssohn symphony: Both are vital, energetic recordings, with the "Italian" having a springy step and invigorating reading that makes it surprising that this symphony was not a central part of the large Stokowski repertoire.
A fitting final pair for career that is, so far, unmatched in innovations and landmark recordings over 65 years. This was done through Stokowski's innovative repertoire, innovative concert formats, youth concerts, and pioneering broadcast techniques. This dissemination of music was further benefited by Stokowski's flair for promoting himself and his music and by the popularity of his stream of recordings from to Stokowski was involved in orchestral recording from the acoustic to the quadraphonic eras, and in pioneering efforts in High Fidelity and stereophonic recording with the Bell Laboratories.