Cell Structure

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Endocrine system
In , sharp, curved claws on the suction cups of squid tentacles cut up the rubber coating on the hull of the USS Stein. In fact, there are species and 3 pounds of bacteria in your gut which form a HUGE chemical factory that helps you digest your food, regulate hormones, excrete toxins, and produce vitamins and other healing compounds that keep your gut and your body healthy. This same hormone has been demonstrated in the ovaries of the closely related sea urchin , where it also promotes maturation of the oocyte. The corpuscles of Stannius, unique glandular islets found only in the kidneys of bony fishes, secrete a peptide called hypocalcin. Other problems like peptic ulcers or GERD require medical attention.

Evolution of endocrine systems

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Physiology, behavioural ecology, birds, seabirds, avian, fish, evolutionary physiology, movement ecology, reproduction, trade-offs, endocrinology, hormones, carryover effects Dr Susan Cunningham Percy Fitzpatrick Institute University of Cape Town.

Global change biology, behavioural ecology, sensory scology, animal behaviour, ecophysiology, thermal biology, thermal ecophysiology, birds, anatomy and histology, foraging, remote touch, bill-tip organ, tactile, body temperature, endotherms, parental care, lost-opportunity costs, tactile senses, mechanistic responses to climate warming.

Global change biology, conservation biology, ecological modelling, climate change ecology, population ecology, landscape ecology, population viability analysis, invasion biology.

Aquatic ecology, evolutionary adaptation, speciation, climate change, conservation, fish, freshwater, marine, deep sea, Africa, Antarctica, Europe, environmental DNA, hybridization, competition, aquaculture, fisheries, genetics, genomics, epigenetics. Vertebrate evolution, evolutionary development, macroevolution, palaeobiology, mammals, morphometrics, diversity, constraints, modulatory, integration.

Behavioural ecology, social evolution, cooperation, kin selection, social behaviour, social microbes, cooperative breeding. Comparative cognition, comparative social behaviour, cross-cultural variation of behaviour and cognition, child development Dr Russell Hill Department of Anthropology Durham University. Spatial statistics, ecological statistics, spatial and spatio-temporal modelling, biodiversity, computational efficient modelling Dr Jennifer Jackson Ecosystems team British Antarctic Survey Keywords: Genetics, population structure, whales, Antarctic, biogeography, mark recapture, bottleneck Dr Domhnall Jennings Institute of Neuroscience Newcastle University.

Contest behaviour, associative learning, aggression, dominance, lateralisation. Conservation biology, citizen science, biodiversity, birds, community, population dynamics, global change, ornithology, migration, climate change. Evolution, development, palaeontology, zoology, vertebrates, skeleton, teeth, bone, dentine. Evolution, ecology, host-parasite interactions, microbiome, coevolution, sex, diversity Professor Sonia Kleindorfer School of Biology Sciences Flinders University.

Animal behaviour, biodiversity conservation, ecology, evolutionary biology, behavioural ecology, molecular ecology. Animal behaviour, evolutionary biology, primatology, social evolution, social behaviour, communication, cognition, phylogenetic comparative methods, mammals, vertebrates.

Animal communication, avian hearing, vocal communication, mixed-species flocks, peripheral auditory system, birdsong, auditory evoked potentials, seasonality, Paridae Professor Stephen Maberly Centre for Ecology and Hydrology Natural Environment Research Council. Lakes, rivers, aquatic botany, aquatic photosynthesis, phytoplankton, macrophytes. Behavioural ecology, evolutionary ecology, birds, birdsong, mating systems, sexual selection, genetic diversity, population genetics, ecoimmunology, parasites, life history Professor Robert Magrath Research School of Biology Australian National University.

Acoustic communication, avian behaviour, alam calls, eavesdropping, predator-prey interactions, parent-offspring communication, duetting, vocal mimicry, signal design Dr Lynn B Martin Department of Integrative Biology University of South Florida.

Ecophysiology, behavioural endocrinology, disease ecology, ecoimmunology, disease, stress, immune, bird, vertebrate, hormone Professor Jason Matthiopoulos Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine University of Glasgow. As members of the class Amphibia , frogs may live some of their adult lives on land, but they must return to water to reproduce.

Eggs are laid and fertilized in water. The third lid, called the nictitating membrane , is transparent. Inside the mouth are two internal nares, or openings into the nostrils; two vomerine teeth in the middle of the roof of the mouth; and two maxillary teeth at the sides of the mouth. Also inside the mouth behind the tongue is the pharynx , or throat.

In the pharynx, there are several openings: The digestive system consists of the organs of the digestive tract, or food tube, and the digestive glands. From the esophagus, swallowed food moves into the stomach and then into the small intestine. Bile is a digestive juice made by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile flows into a tube called the common bile duct, into which pancreatic juice , a digestive juice from the pancreas, also flows.

The contents of the common bile duct flow into the small intestine, where most of the digestion and absorption of food into the bloodstream takes place. Recognition of a sub-specialty is generally related to dedicated fellowship training offered within the subspecialty or, alternatively, to surgical pathologists with a special interest and extensive experience in gastrointestinal pathology.

The Pancreatic gland is regarding 6 inches long and sits across the rear of the abdomen, behind the abdomen. The top of the duct gland is on the proper back of the abdomen and is connected to the small intestine through a tiny low tube known as the Pancreatic duct.

The slim finish of the duct gland, known as the tail, extends to the left facet of the body. Diarrhea , that is characterised by frequent and watery intestine movements, is usually caused by canal infections, though it may return from different sicknesses or changes in diet. Germs like parasites, viruses, or microorganism all will cause canal GI infections. There are a colossal variety of microbes that cause change within the intestines. Most of the time infections of the intestines end in diarrhoea or infectious disease , nausea, vomiting , and abdominal cramping.

Infections within the intestine typically end in infectious disease. Some diseases follow sure predisposing conditions. The digestive system is an intricate system that can be disrupted by disease, diet and emotional stress.

While some digestive problems can be remedied with medicine and lifestyle changes, others require surgery. The primary role of the digestive system is to help the body break down and absorb food. Also known as the gastrointestinal GI tract, it includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine , large intestine also called the colon , rectum, and anus.

Diseases of the digestive tract that need medicine management, sometimes together with different treatments, square measure peptic ulcers omeprazole and others , hurting laxatives, analgesics , looseness of the bowels antibiotics, protectants and absorbents, glucocorticoids , motility inhibitors , reperfusion injury, operative enteropathy prokinetic drugs , and adhesions. There's growing proof that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug medicine will alter vital physiological properties of the intestine; but, these medicine square measure valuable medicines for horses and their use ought to be tempered with an awareness of their harmful effects.

Advances and Applications, CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology. GIST is the most common type of sarcoma; it develops in the gastrointestinal GI tract, a long tube running through the body from the oesophagus gullet to the anus back passage and includes the stomach and intestines.

Endoscopy is a procedure that looks inside your stomach. It uses an instrument called an endoscope, or scope for short. Scopes have a camera attached to a long, thin tube.

The doctor moves it through a body passageway or opening to see inside an organ. Sometimes scopes are used for surgery, such as for removing polyps from the colon. Patients typically gift with abdominal pain, weight loss, fever, anorexia, modification in gut habits, nausea, and innate reflex.

The identification is commonly delayed and is sometimes created through a mixture of radiologic, endoscopic, microbiologic, histologic, and molecular techniques. Antimicrobial treatment is that the same as for TB. Surgery is sometimes needed. Constipation occurs when bowel movements become difficult or less frequent. The normal length of time between bowel movements ranges widely from person to person. Some people have bowel movements three times a day; others, only one or two times a week.

Going longer than three days without a bowel movement is too long. After three days, the stool or feces become harder and more difficult to pass. People usually sit down with a "stomachache" or "abdominal cramps" to sit down with pain that's perceived anyplace within the abdominal space. As such, the list of potential causes is extraordinarily varied. Organs of the abdomen embody the abdomen, bowel, colon, liver, bladder, and duct gland, and issues or diseases of all of those organs is also the supply of pain.

Digestion of protein begins in this place.

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