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I am doing the 5 day flex plan, but am contemplating upgrading to the full 7-day program as it really is a no brainer and I am concerned about having the liberty to choose my own meals on the weekends that has proven to be very dangerous! We completely understand how this can throw someone off. When I joined Nutrisystem I was afraid the food would taste terrible as I had read a review online saying so. How much and when I should be eating vegetables, and ideas on what to eat if you have to attend a social function or business based meeting that involves food. Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition. But for me, cucumbers, tomatoes, etc. In 3 years I graduated a size
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One of the things I think is absolutely great about Nutrisystem is the literature they provide with your 1st order. I received a restaurant guide used it twice already and a menu book that includes approved foods you can use to supplement your menu at the grocery store.
I am doing the 5 day flex plan, but am contemplating upgrading to the full 7-day program as it really is a no brainer and I am concerned about having the liberty to choose my own meals on the weekends that has proven to be very dangerous! The program is really simple to follow and my carb, sugar and salt cravings are gone. Today my wife came home with a cookie for my son she bought at Starbucks. It looked so good, so I decided to have the NS chocolate chip cookie for my dessert and it was very satisfying.
I love this program! I have been on Nutrisystem for 6 months and I have lost just over 35 lbs. I also joined a local gym and have a personal trainer which of course helps. My goal is to look as good as the day I graduated from High School when I go to my 50th class reunion in By the way, I already think I look better than the day I graduated! I know, wishful thinking, right? I've been on it for over a year and only lost 45 pounds.
My support group keeps telling me to stick with it longer, claiming that if you stick with the plan you will lose all the weight you want. I've read on the NS support forums that 45 pounds is great, but I had hoped that I woul dhave lost pounds by now. Maybe I'll need to start excercising afterall.
When I started the program I did not know if I would stick with it. Diets can be hard to stick with sometimes. However, the Nutrisystem plan is not hard to stick with. The plan is laid out so simply that anyone can follow it. The Nutrisystem plan comes with a money back guarantee. If a person joins the program and does not like it he can receive his money back. The plan is so easy to follow. I have lost 22 pounds on the program while eating things like chocolate cake.
Unlike Medifast, the food is delicious. If you are thinking of trying the plan but are afraid that you will not like the food please stop worrying. The Nutrisystem plan comes with a great menu with foods on the menu that are very delicious.
I have lost 32 pounds and finally feel like I may make my goal of losing I wasn't thrilled with the food when I started, but now that I can choose the foods that I really like it is much better. I love the pizzas loaded with red pepper or onions and pineapple.
We've had out of town company and been to many family gatherings, where I used to overeat. I find that when I have my own food that I like and because I am rarely hunger now, that the temptation to cheat is just not there.
I also love most of the desserts, but who doesn't: Five years ago I lost 62 lbs on NS, but over the years I gained back 38 lbs. Now I am back on the system and intend to stay until I reach my goal weight. My co-worker is using Jenny Craig but it was just to cost prohibitive for me.
I've tried her meals and honestly didn't think they were as tasty as Nutrisystems are. Just 65 Pounds Left To Go 4 out of 5 stars. I am on my 10th day on Nutrisystem and I absolutely love it! The food is great and a lot better tasting than Jenny Craig. I have lost 8 pounds so far and am really excited. I have 65 more to go to reach my goal weight. The website is full of good information and tons of motivation which I need and love!! Anyone can do this diet.
At 32 years old, I had surpassed pounds and went on a diet with Slimfast Shakes and low fat dinners that I made. I was single at the time and had the time to prepare my own meals and exercise vigorously for about an hour 5 days a week. Needless to say, I did lose 40 lbs in 3 months, but it was hard work and I was always hungry. I'm now 40 years old now and after several failed starts I decided to give Nutrisystem a go. Being married with 2 children, my time is much more limited now.
Nutrisystem is perfect for this reason as I don't have to count calories — it's all done online for me. The meals are reasonably good and you can pretty much choose the meals you want. The first month I went with the default menu and selected the meals I liked best for the second and third month.
I'm following the menu strictly and my caloric intake is around calories a day. All in all, I have been on the diet for 42 days and I have lost 23 lbs and 3 inches off my waist!
This program is well worth it! I needed to go on a diet. I had gained 25 pounds over the last year and I could not fit into any of my clothes. I did not want to go buy a whole new wardrobe when I already had a perfectly good one. With Nutrisystem I have access to a website that allows me to track my weight loss progress.
I enjoy logging onto the website and seeing how far I have come. I also get support from the website. I enjoy almost all of the foods Nutrisystem has to offer.
They all taste pretty good. The best part of Nutrisystem is that I have lost weight with a program that is extremely easy to follow. I liked many aspects of the diet; however, I thought the food portions were too small. Maybe I'm too used to supersizing everything? The Nutrisystem plan does work though. When I was using the plan I lost about fifteen pounds. The plan was also very easy to follow.
I did not have to weigh out food. I did not have to count calories. I did not have to figure out which foods to eat to lose weight. I just had to follow the instructions that came with the plan and eat the food that the plan provided me with.
When I joined the Nutrisystem plan I also received 24 hour access to the Nutrisystem web site where I could chat with someone for support daily if I needed to. Haven't used it, but its nice to know its there for me.
The food was just as tasty as pre-cooked frozen meals you buy in the grocery store. I enjoyed many of the foods that Nutrisystem offers. The desserts and snacks were delicious. The dinners are done very nicely with foods that are very tasteful and full of flavor. The breakfasts were good I especially liked the pancakes. The lunches were also good. The thing I did not like about Nutrisystem was that the portions of foods they provided were too small.
The program is extremely easy to use. Any man can join the program and expect to lose weight easily. I joined the plan and Nutrisystem sent me dieting tools, instructions on how to use the plan and great tasting foods. I also have access to Nutrisystems website. The website includes chat rooms, blogs, and group discussions about dieting. The website is a great place for me to go to receive support. I have not felt this energetic in awhile. I now have the energy to get through the day without feeling so tired.
I even have enough energy to work out. Without the Nutrisystem plan I would still be overweight, unhealthy and unhappy. Without Nutrisystem I would still be eating unhealthy and gaining weight instead of losing weight.
I joined Nutrisystem two and a half months ago. When I first started the program it was an adjustment I had to get used to. I was used to overeating all of the time. With Nutrisystem the food portions are designed to be just right so a person gets the nutrition he needs and still loses weight.
I had to get used to eating the right sized portion instead of overeating. Once I adjusted to eating differently the plan started to really work. The plan is easy to follow and comes with instructions on how to do so. I am losing weight easily.
I am feeling healthier every day. I am enjoying the foods I am eating, and I am enjoying the compliments I am receiving on my weight loss. I joined the Nutrisystem plan because I knew I was headed in the wrong direction with my body weight.
I decided to start going to a gym. However, I did not know how to start eating right. I pick the food I want to eat from the menu that Nutrisystem provides. Nutrisystem also shows me how to plan what to eat for the day. The foods are really good. I love some of them, like most of them and only disliked one or two items out of the whole menu. One of my favorite foods from Nutrisystem is their Mexican style tortilla soup, it's great.
As far as diets go Nutrisystem is a great plan. When I was on the Nutrisystem plan it worked for me. I lost weight, learned to eat healthier and felt great. Nutrisystem is also extremely easy to follow. The plan comes with easy to follow instructions on how to use the program to work for you. When I was on the plan my wife and children would eat their food while I ate my Nutrisystem food. Her food was hard to resist; however, I stuck to the Nutrisystem plan because their food also tastes good.
I ate good food every day. Foods such as blueberry pancakes, blueberry muffins, honey mustard pretzel sticks, beef stew and broiled beef patties. Nutrisystem truly does go to great lengths to help make losing weight easy.
I wanted to lose 20 pounds, but ended up shaving off 30 pounds thanks to Nutrisystem. Nutrisystem is the best diet plan I have ever tried. I have tried to diet a few other times in my life but I could not stick to the diet. With Nutrisystem I do not have to learn recipes. I do not have to learn to eat better foods. I do not have to count calories. I do not have to weigh food. With Nutrisystem all I have to do is follow the instructions and eat the foods Nutrisystem supplies.
When I joined Nutrisystem I was afraid the food would taste terrible as I had read a review online saying so. Of course there are a few foods that do not suit my taste such as the eggs frittata; however, most of the foods are delicious. For breakfast I can eat pancakes, blueberry pancakes, cinnamon buns or oatmeal.
There are many other breakfast foods to choose from also. For lunch I can eat hearty minestrone soup or choose from many other menu items. Nutrisystem also offers great dinners, snacks and desserts. Following the Nutrisystem plan is easy and I am seeing results. I wish the weight melted off easier, but it took a while putting it on and so I expect it'll take time getting it off too.
I had tried losing weight on my own a few times but it was too hard to count calories and weigh out all of my food what a time sucker! I always got discouraged about losing the weight. With Nutrisystem I have not became discouraged because Nutrisystem makes the plan so simple to follow.
While it's not fresh food the meals are frozen , it still just as great tasting. Speaking frankly, I was really afraid that I would hate the Nutrisystem food. I gave the food a try thinking it would taste like cardboard. However, I was completely wrong, the Nutrisystem food is delicious. Breakfast, lunch, dinner, dessert and all my snacks provided by Nutrisystem are tasty. My wife loves me being on the Nutrisystem diet too. She is very impressed with the progress I have made losing weight.
She just makes dinner for the family and I eat my Nutrisystem meal. Nutrisystem is a great diet plan that I personally think can help anyone lose weight. Let's be honest here, does any man like to cook? Not only do I not like to cook, I just don't have the time to cook.
That's why Nutrisystem really appealed to me when my doctor recommended it. I am a busy man who works 80 hours a week. I am also single. I just don't know how to cook, so I eat fast food quite often. I also eat at restaurants often too. The reason I go out to eat so often is because I am single, busy and do not know how to cook.
Going out to eat is just easier than learning how to cook. But eating out is expensive and has caused me to quickly add on 30 pounds that I no longer wanted.
I thought if I pay to go out to eat everyday I might as well pay to eat this healthy food and lose some weight. The best part of the Nutrisystem plan is that I do not have to prepare the food and it still tastes great. I am losing weight eating healthy delicious foods. I'm happy and so is my doctor who was telling me I needed to lose weight. I have lost nine pounds since I started the diet. The corresponding amino acid in humans is encoded by the sequence CGG and would require two nucleotides to be changed to produce a stop codon, which is much less likely to happen.
A recessive frameshift mutation resulting in a reduction of leptin has been observed in two consanguineous children with juvenile obesity. A Human Genome Equivalent HuGE review in looked at studies of the connection between genetic mutations affecting leptin regulation and obesity. They reviewed a common polymorphism in the leptin gene A19G; frequency 0. They found no association between any of the polymorphisms and obesity. Other rare polymorphisms have been found but their association with obesity are not consistent.
A single case of a homozygous transversion mutation of the gene encoding for leptin was reported in January The transversion of c. The mutant leptin could neither bind to nor activate the leptin receptor in vitro , nor in leptin-deficient mice in vivo. It was found in a two-year-old boy with extreme obesity with recurrent ear and pulmonary infections. Treatment with metreleptin led to "rapid change in eating behavior, a reduction in daily energy intake, and substantial weight loss".
Leptin is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. Leptin circulates in blood in free form and bound to proteins. Leptin levels vary exponentially, not linearly, with fat mass. In humans, many instances are seen where leptin dissociates from the strict role of communicating nutritional status between body and brain and no longer correlates with body fat levels:. All known leptin mutations except one are associated with low to undetectable immunoreactive leptin blood levels.
The exception is a mutant leptin reported in January which is not functional, but is detected with standard immunoreactive methods. Predominantly, the "energy expenditure hormone" leptin is made by adipose cells , thus it is labeled fat cell-specific. In the context of its effects , it is important to recognize that the short describing words direct , central , and primary are not used interchangeably.
In regard to the hormone leptin, central vs peripheral refers to the hypothalamic portion of the brain vs non-hypothalamic location of action of leptin; direct vs indirect refers to whether there is no intermediary, or there is an intermediary in the mode of action of leptin; and primary vs secondary is an arbitrary description of a particular function of leptin. In vertebrates, the nervous system consists of two main parts, the central nervous system CNS and the peripheral nervous system PNS.
The primary effect of leptins is in the hypothalamus , a part of the central nervous system. Leptin receptors are expressed not only in the hypothalamus but also in other brain regions, particularly in the hippocampus. Thus some leptin receptors in the brain are classified as central hypothalamic and some as peripheral non-hypothalamic. Generally, leptin is thought to enter the brain at the choroid plexus , where the intense expression of a form of leptin receptor molecule could act as a transport mechanism.
Increased levels of melatonin causes a downregulation of leptin,  however, melatonin also appears to increase leptin levels in the presence of insulin , therefore causing a decrease in appetite during sleeping. Mice with type 1 diabetes treated with leptin or leptin plus insulin, compared to insulin alone had better metabolic profiles: Leptin acts on receptors in the lateral hypothalamus to inhibit hunger and the medial hypothalamus to stimulate satiety. Thus, a lesion in the lateral hypothalamus causes anorexia due to a lack of hunger signals and a lesion in the medial hypothalamus causes excessive hunger due to a lack of satiety signals.
The absence of leptin or its receptor leads to uncontrolled hunger and resulting obesity. Fasting or following a very-low-calorie diet lowers leptin levels. Leptin binds to neuropeptide Y NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus in such a way as to decrease the activity of these neurons.
Leptin signals to the hypothalamus which produces a feeling of satiety. Moreover, leptin signals may make it easier for people to resist the temptation of foods high in calories. The NPY neurons are a key element in the regulation of hunger; small doses of NPY injected into the brains of experimental animals stimulates feeding, while selective destruction of the NPY neurons in mice causes them to become anorexic. Once leptin has bound to the Ob-Rb receptor, it activates the stat3, which is phosphorylated and travels to the nucleus to effect changes in gene expression, one of the main effects being the down-regulation of the expression of endocannabinoids , responsible for increasing hunger.
It modulates the immune response to atherosclerosis, of which obesity is a predisposing factor. Exogenous leptin can promote angiogenesis by increasing vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Hyperleptinemia produced by infusion or adenoviral gene transfer decreases blood pressure in rats. Leptin microinjections into the nucleus of the solitary tract NTS have been shown to elicit sympathoexcitatory responses, and potentiate the cardiovascular responses to activation of the chemoreflex.
In fetal lung, leptin is induced in the alveolar interstitial fibroblasts "lipofibroblasts" by the action of PTHrP secreted by formative alveolar epithelium endoderm under moderate stretch. The leptin from the mesenchyme, in turn, acts back on the epithelium at the leptin receptor carried in the alveolar type II pneumocytes and induces surfactant expression, which is one of the main functions of these type II pneumocytes. In mice, and to a lesser extent in humans, leptin is required for male and female fertility.
Ovulatory cycles in females are linked to energy balance positive or negative depending on whether a female is losing or gaining weight and energy flux how much energy is consumed and expended much more than energy status fat levels.
When energy balance is highly negative meaning the woman is starving or energy flux is very high meaning the woman is exercising at extreme levels, but still consuming enough calories , the ovarian cycle stops and females stop menstruating. Only if a female has an extremely low body fat percentage does energy status affect menstruation.
Leptin levels outside an ideal range may have a negative effect on egg quality and outcome during in vitro fertilization. The placenta produces leptin. Leptin is also expressed in fetal membranes and the uterine tissue.
Uterine contractions are inhibited by leptin. Immunoreactive leptin has been found in human breast milk; and leptin from mother's milk has been found in the blood of suckling infant animals. Leptin along with kisspeptin controls the onset of puberty. Leptin's ability to regulate bone mass was first recognized in Leptin decreases cancellous bone , but increases cortical bone. This "cortical-cancellous dichotomy" may represent a mechanism for enlarging bone size, and thus bone resistance, to cope with increased body weight.
Bone metabolism can be regulated by central sympathetic outflow, since sympathetic pathways innervate bone tissue. Factors that acutely affect leptin levels are also factors that influence other markers of inflammation, e. While it is well-established that leptin is involved in the regulation of the inflammatory response,    it has been further theorized that leptin's role as an inflammatory marker is to respond specifically to adipose-derived inflammatory cytokines.
In terms of both structure and function, leptin resembles IL-6 and is a member of the cytokine superfamily. Similar to what is observed in chronic inflammation, chronically elevated leptin levels are associated with obesity, overeating, and inflammation-related diseases, including hypertension , metabolic syndrome , and cardiovascular disease. While leptin is associated with body fat mass, however, the size of individual fat cells, and the act of overeating, it is interesting that it is not affected by exercise for comparison, IL-6 is released in response to muscular contractions.
Thus, it is speculated that leptin responds specifically to adipose-derived inflammation. Taken as such, increases in leptin levels in response to caloric intake function as an acute pro-inflammatory response mechanism to prevent excessive cellular stress induced by overeating. When high caloric intake overtaxes the ability of fat cells to grow larger or increase in number in step with caloric intake, the ensuing stress response leads to inflammation at the cellular level and ectopic fat storage, i.
The insulin increase in response to the caloric load provokes a dose-dependent rise in leptin, an effect potentiated by high cortisol levels. This response may then protect against the harmful process of ectopic fat storage, which perhaps explains the connection between chronically elevated leptin levels and ectopic fat storage in obese individuals.
Although leptin reduces appetite as a circulating signal, obese individuals generally exhibit a higher circulating concentration of leptin than normal weight individuals due to their higher percentage body fat. A number of explanations have been proposed to explain this. An important contributor to leptin resistance is changes to leptin receptor signalling, particularly in the arcuate nucleus , however, deficiency of, or major changes to, the leptin receptor itself are not thought to be a major cause.
Other explanations suggested include changes to the way leptin crosses the blood brain barrier BBB or alterations occurring during development. Studies on leptin cerebrospinal fluid CSF levels provide evidence for the reduction in leptin crossing the BBB and reaching obesity-relevant targets, such as the hypothalamus, in obese people. Since the amount and quality of leptin receptors in the hypothalamus appears to be normal in the majority of obese humans as judged from leptin-mRNA studies ,  it is likely that the leptin resistance in these individuals is due to a post leptin-receptor deficit, similar to the post-insulin receptor defect seen in type 2 diabetes.
When leptin binds with the leptin receptor, it activates a number of pathways. Mice with a mutation in the leptin receptor gene that prevents the activation of STAT3 are obese and exhibit hyperphagia. The PI3K pathway may also be involved in leptin resistance, as has been demonstrated in mice by artificial blocking of PI3K signalling. The PI3K pathway also is activated by the insulin receptor and is therefore an important area where leptin and insulin act together as part of energy homeostasis.
The consumption of a high fructose diet from birth has been associated with a reduction in leptin levels and reduced expression of leptin receptor mRNA in rats. Long-term consumption of fructose in rats has been shown to increase levels of triglycerides and trigger leptin and insulin resistance,   however, another study found that leptin resistance only developed in the presence of both high fructose and high fat levels in the diet.
A third study found that high fructose levels reversed leptin resistance in rats given a high fat diet. The contradictory results mean that it is uncertain whether leptin resistance is caused by high levels of carbohydrates or fats, or if an increase of both, is needed.
Leptin is known to interact with amylin , a hormone involved in gastric emptying and creating a feeling of fullness. When both leptin and amylin were given to obese, leptin-resistant rats, sustained weight loss was seen. Due to its apparent ability to reverse leptin resistance, amylin has been suggested as possible therapy for obesity. It has been suggested that the main role of leptin is to act as a starvation signal when levels are low, to help maintain fat stores for survival during times of starvation, rather than a satiety signal to prevent overeating.
Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food. Dieters who lose weight, particularly those with an overabundance of fat cells, experience a drop in levels of circulating leptin. This drop causes reversible decreases in thyroid activity, sympathetic tone, and energy expenditure in skeletal muscle, and increases in muscle efficiency and parasympathetic tone.
A decline in levels of circulating leptin also changes brain activity in areas involved in the regulatory, emotional, and cognitive control of appetite that are reversed by administration of leptin. Osteoarthritis and obesity are closely linked. Obesity is one of the most important preventable factors for the development of osteoarthritis. Originally, the relationship between osteoarthritis and obesity was considered to be exclusively biomechanically based, according to which the excess weight caused the joint to become worn down more quickly.
However, today we recognise that there is also a metabolic component which explains why obesity is a risk factor for osteoarthritis, not only for weight-bearing joints for example, the knees , but also for joints that do not bear weight for example, the hands. Thus, the deregulated production of adipokines and inflammatory mediators, hyperlipidaemia, and the increase of systemic oxidative stress are conditions frequently associated with obesity which can favour joint degeneration.
Furthermore, many regulation factors have been implicated in the development, maintenance and function, both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the additional link between obesity and osteoarthritis. Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines.
Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate the functions of organs at a distance, and several of them have been specifically involved in the physiopathology of joint diseases.
In particular, there is one, leptin, which has been the focus of attention for research in recent years. The circulating leptin levels are positively correlated with the Body Mass Index BMI , more specifically with fatty mass, and obese individuals have higher leptin levels in their blood circulation, compared with non-obese individuals.