Piper WARRIOR III PA-28-161 Pilot Operating Handbook

The Circuit

What happened to the Subaru Aircraft Engine?
I think there was nothing wrong with the idrive console, it probably was doing some kind of reboot. The annunciator panel lights are provided only Supercharged airplanes will fly at altitudes far above those at which the human body can survive without the aid of special equipment. Faster than a Zero, with remote controlled gun turrets, this is the plane that made the very long range raids on Japan possible. United overran runway at Green Bay. BMW i E93 '

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9999 CUMMINS CUMMINS Recalls (11)

P classic digitally restored from new archival print with 5 minutes more content. An exclusive special edition! WW2 Flat Tops in Action! Some of the most exciting color air action sequences to come out of World War II! On the prowl over Germany color. You'll see aces like G. T Eagleston and B. The versatile "medium" Mitchell was flown off the deck of the carrier Hornet in the epic Doolittle raid on Tokyo, and one version mounted a massive 75mm canon for ground attack.

That's "Peter Gunn" in the right seat. The Marauder was fast, unforgiving of rookie mistakes, rugged and heavily armed. As promised, I sent the above images to Dylan and he too was surprised at the improvements.

I did tell him I'll post another short testimonial if I'm driving outstation. Not gonna lie, I was thinking twice whether the remapping was worth the money.

But in the long run, I get to travel on the road an extra day and what not, and it does make a difference. This one time investments lasts for a looong time. To Remap or Not!! But Dylan washed away all my worries. Takeoff from traffic lights is Especially much faster. Acceleration from is so much faster and im not even close to half throttle. Top Speed not tested yet. Fuel consumption improved a little Not during asperated driving. Overall its more fun and power to drive. This would be completed at a later time on 12th Jan during Dylan's next trip down to KL.

It drives better than before BUT power gain novelty is slowly wearing off after a day of driving. Maybe the gain is not too significant yet and maybe because I'm getting used to it by now. The different feel in light to mid throttle application is very significant.

The other significant difference is the travelling speed attained in relation to accelerator depress level. Meaning FC is 8. I must also mentioned that during my business trips to JB and back, the boot is always saddled with a heavy load of equipment about 50 - 60kg each time.

But there was a slight stronger grunt emanating from under the hood. Overall, the remap did not harm the engine. The total mileage hit successfully was km. So, this return trip run yielded a FC of 7. How's that for FC and performance? Sad to say now that I'm so used to the car that I don't feel the power increase anymore. The power deficiency syndrome is starting to rear its ugly head again.

In the afternoons, I go driving around industrial areas canvassing for sales. And at nights, I'm the chauffeur for my 2 kids, going to and fro from the house to 2 differently located tuition centres. On one instance, I pumped in rm80 RON95 for a strict round of monitoring. As usual, covering town driving but with almost no long queue or stuck in a jam situation.

And the total mileage the car achieved this time was km. After doing the maths, the FC came to 9. Sometimes, slightly even more. So, there is certainly fuel savings. I leave it to you guys to go figure. The initial feel is that the throttle responsiveness is even lighter now and much much more responsive. The car behaves totally different now. And the engine grunts strongly when pressed hard on the accelerator.

The newly attained 'sound effect' is like music to my ears. The moving off from stand still is so much more responsive. The car feels much much more responsive and pleasurable to drive now. Over taking cars is a non issue most of the time as you know it will just go when you want it to. Verdict I can safely say, the overall driveability factor has gone up a notch. I am very happy and satisfied with what Dylan has done to my car. I'm like reborn and so too feels the car! For the nay sayers and those who are still sitting on the fence wondering should I risk throwing in hard earn money to try it out?

I was suppose to do a stage 1 tuning by dylan, but after hearing the benefits of all 4 different stages explained by dylan, i decided to go with stage 2. No regrets on the decision as dylan made a awesome tuning to my car, now it feels much lighter and more responsive now comparing with previous stock settings. Stage 2 tuning has also improve the fuel consumption of the car, and also bringing a new experience of driving this car.

Awesome job done by Dktuning! U just cant resist d power la, bro. I drove Penang-seremban-melaka-seremban-melaka-seremban right after you remapped. Its like playing video games. So smooth and acceleration was superb.

If u r a lady definitely im in love hahahaha. I will definitely be recommending you to friends and family. Looking forward for our next project bro stage 2. Really great respond since in Malaysia we hardly go for top speed. It is superb performance! The torque is very good in low end until high , no sluggish anymore!

Even with a torco accelerator and torco RCL the result is even more superior! As to the comparison between box and map, I would rate box a 2 and map a 4 if 5 is the greatest improvement. Not sure about the amount of black smoke yet, the mileage, the max speed I breached just now and in very short time etc Yet to find out So far so good! In fact too much power until the rear wheel keep spinning when going on wet road.

Very strong pulling torque especially in gear. I think the whole torque curve shifted up quite a lot I feel confident with ur product and what's more ur service!!! Comments on Tuningbox vs DK Remap: Box no compare at all. The overall feel, Beginning to the end feel Map, the delivery of torque and end power is "earlier and longer" Ur product is thumbs up.

Tuning box no comparison to remap I'm really very very pleased to have u remapped my car This is that kind of "feel syiok" feeling that I've been hoping for U have made another very happy customer!!! Notable difference to torque and HP! My commendation as well to Dylan, he was highly patient and professional throughout. I owe my driving pleasure to this man. Obviously was a satisfied customer and without qualms looking forward to get remapped for my BMW i E90 engine.

For those who has driven original factory fitted i E90 , I am very sure you have the Same experience as myself where the car is very sluggish especially low to mid torque range. You have to floor the pedal before the engine reacts and response. Another observation is that the car is under performed especially mid to high , no wonder they purposely keep it low performance so that they can sell at much higher price using same engine but tune up map.

After tuning was done , I can feel the car has gone through transformation especially The power where low to mid was a huge differential change. I have not got a chance to go mid to high yet since limited clear road I can go for long drive. Definitely the car response , torque and HP have went up significantly.

Thanks for 2nd hybrid map just installed today, will let you know the outcome. I am very sure I will not be disappointed. Service level is good, knowledge n experience is good also, at least Dylan have a Sifus in Germany that knows car very well in case of something which never encounter, he can well reach out to the more expert guy for advise.

Indeed i can feel improved performance and torque although on paper it didnt show much. Perhaps a dyno will put things at ease. Even at 5 and 6th gear the car can still pull further. I no longer hear weird noises from the engine bay at low rpm seems like turbine noise, i might be wrong.

It is still early to gauge fuel consumption but so far looks good. Will update in the months following. Your advise, services and knowledge is very much appreciated. Your recommendation for octane booster intro'd me to a new product. Overall, I'd come back if I have other cars to play with.

I have a Peugeot MPV which is still under warranty. Knowing Peugeot and its 'reliability', I have time to think about mapping it yet. Thanks and Happy New Year! Terima Kasih kerana membantu saya menjana lebih kuasa terhadap jentera saya. Kuasa hamburan yang diberikan begitu mengagumkan dan saya amat berpuas hati terhadap servis yang diberikan tambahan pula anda seorang yang sangat peramah dan tidak terlalu berkira untuk memberikan servis yang terbaik.

Asalnya saya dapati jentera saya agak lembap dan tindak balas enjin tidak begitu menarik untuk di janakan tetapi hasil pemetaan semula ECU Proton Inspira saya hasilnya sangat-sangat membuatkan saya ingin memandu jentera saya setiap hari. Prestasi jentera saya berada pada tahap yang dikehendaki apabila saya menekan pendikit minyak dan penggunaan bahan minyak lebih menjimatkan dari sebelumnya.

CVT juga tidak perlu berkerja lebih kuat dalam jangka masa yang lama untuk mencapai kelajuan yang diingini. Saya mendapati perubahan lebih ketara terhadap enjin saya dimana ketika enjin berada dalam keaddaan "idle", kekasaran enjin berkurangan selepas saya melakukan pemetaan semula.

Berbekalkan modal yang mampu bayar, anda telah melakukan lebih dari jangkaan saya. Terima Kasih dan semoga maju jaya! I must say that Daylan has progressed tremendously over these few years in terms of his remapping skills as evident by the num bers and types of cars he has remapped. The car used to have a slight hesitation from low to mid-range rpm.

Now the torque is linear throughout low to mid-range rpm without any hesitation. Amazing torque and power from 3, rpm onwards and the car is fast on manual mode and spirit driving with the paddle shifter is really fun and enjoyable. Fuel consumption has also improved slightly used to be The speed limiter is removed, torque and power are better across the full rev range and the cold-start rpm has dropped from to around rpm.

Satisfaction to the max! I'm always power hungry for my car! I've read a lot of Dylan's good testimonies before decided to engaged him to remap my car. But before the remap, I knew three things have to be done first. But the wait was worth every second of it! For a moment I couldn't handle it. Some of the time reading was faster by 3 over to 4 seconds!

Before, it was kilometer from half tank. The pulling force of the torque is the bestest here!!! To confirm all the commotions, I went for a second dyno test again. Please be ready Dylan, my wife's Citroen DS3 is your next project. See you soon Bro! The low end and midrange torque is improved quite a lot Its worth for the investment! It feel smoother from all the rpm range before that I feel the drag and slow down in range of rpmrpm. For my overview, I feel a lot of different after tune from the whole process we have done compare to original ECU map.

It gain much more power even more fuel saving. The low end torque also have much improved. When I just press little on the throttle paddle, I can feel the pulling power differently. It is fun to drive. It worth to pay for tune my 1. I'm satify choosing DK Tuning. Thank you very much. I didn't do any actual dyno runs so i can't provide an exact figure.

Milo - KL Honda Jazz 1. Could have done more in making the throttle response from standstill a little faster this is where my car frustrates me the most. Once it is moving it is great as there are less gear hunting when doing manoeuvring through traffic. Fuel consumption seems to be improving but only marginally. Can't really fault the service provided by you. So far so good especially acceleration at kph speed. I hardly past rpm in any gear now cos the torque is just pulling me along, happy with the knowledge that anytime, full throttle will just pull me away from most normal 1.

Surprisingly, on full or part throttle on the move, there is no noticeable smoke from the exhaust, only from standing start, full pedal will just illicit a puff, then the smoke is gone. So far, every single passenger has been astonished at the acceleration! The power is good, really felt it on the in-gear acceleration. Overall the power is linear which is good and so far been enjoying it: Now my Polo tsi got more power and torque. The engin revs very smooth thru out the entire revs.

Thanks for your service! Beatrice had poor midrange RPM Torque and there was always a lag when I am cruising and then floor the accelerator to overtake. Throttle response was not as responsive as I would have liked it to be. Keep having to use the sports and manual mode each time I wanted the torque to kick in.

My request to Dylan: Beatrice has become a pleasure to drive. My road trip to Penang using a mix of trunk coastal drive and highway was amazing. The torque drive in midrange have improved drastically and the lag has also reduced to a point where it is not so noticable.

No more frustration with Beatrice anymore. She is now a gem to drive. Throttle response has also improved significantly especially from dead-stops. And all this is on normal gear. Sports mode is even more noticeable. I am very satisfied with the outcome of the re-map.

My experience with Dylan: He is a very meticulous guy and treated Beatrice as his won when remapping to ensure she got the perfect map. He was patient and is very focussed on building and maintaining a long term relationship with his customers. Noticed a slight increase in consumption but that could be my heavier right foot now enjoying my moment with Beatrice.

BTW, that friend of mine who also has the same model E90 drove my car on the way back from Penang and says it has considerable difference from his E My car's performance thus far is great. Significantly different from before.

Nevertheless, let me relate the story line. The only absence below is facts and figures becoz I cant formulate them. But having driven my Accord regularly for the last 4 years, I can safely say I know the car's character and behaviour well: The remap was completed 11 pm on Monday, 29 April.

After the test run, and on my way way home, I can already see a different behaviour from my car. It runs swiftly, responding well to my light touch of the gas pedal. Traffic is not heavy that night. That gives me the opportunity to test it out on the highway. True enough, the ride is fun. And it continues to behave in that manner till now by then I have topped up the fuel tank a few times already. I am now a happy driver of my Accord. Like I said before, whilst driving I keep wanting to go faster then any car coming along side me.

Becoz my Accord can confidently take the challenge now! Thank you Dylan for the remap. I wish you all the best. TQ and kind Regards Its not only becoz of the car performance that Im happy with but also because of your perfection in works and the service after that.

I can say you are the best car tuner so far in Malaysia. Im going to meet u again in future the the lubricants haha J. U really did a good job and understand that u really put a lot of efforts into it.

I can felt that the torque really increased a lot, my car become very light and can overtake very easily, the pick up really improved a lot! Thank u very much Dylan - Master of remapping and tuning. No problems so far. I need to drive it out to Maju Expressway for further testing: The car jerks when accelerating from a complete stop when I hit the pedal too fast though. I guess I just need to get used to the extra sensitive acceleration now. It had better gains than a with dvvt.

With the remap by DKTuning i managed to get bhp and nm. As the original was already torquey the increase was really not ultimately significant. Topspeed came faster, that i am sure off. Honestly i expected higher topspeed I got century sprint in the 7s Overall for the future i am hoping to get my extractor done soon, followed by camshafts. I hope the map will be able to adjust like Dylan said? Whatever it is i am happy with the results and also impressed with Dylan with the excellent customer service he provides.

I am pretty confident with his work. Its been a month plus and so far no problems. Hope to meet Dylan up one day for maybe possible a tune up? Thanks for eliminated the infamous sluggishness of the throttle. Torque increased highly noticeable at 4th and 5th gear. The car just accelerate out of nowhere when the gear dropped manually. Fuel consumption has reduced from 7. Century sprint cut short to 3seconds after remapped.

Well a good, professional and honest tuner who answered all my queries without any hestitation. He definately knows what he is doing! So you take good care boy and hope to see you soon ok. Much more responsive after 1. The amount that I've paid for it, well.. I would really say that it is worth much more than that. Honestly, there are totally no regret on it! Another ride of mine is awaiting to go for it.. The throttle feels sharp and responsive and the pattern of the gear shifting has change too.

G ood job and keep it up! And the result is below for century sprint for an amateur: Then got some rolling start testing to gather a few data before do a remapping. After all the required data been taken, the main course is starting at around 10pm. After a few minutes of flashing the map into my bella, we go straight away using the same routes to Putrajaya. I do again the century sprint, and still as an amateur, the result is as below: Quite good result for an amateur like me Any mistake could cause you sleepless nights.

Engaging Dktuning to remap my Audi gave me peace of mind. Besides, I got the choice to choose different map which gives a very diff driving characteristic each.

I doubt I can get this kind of service from other tuners. Before the remap, my car felt very sluggish even though after the CPS is activated, the engine acts like there is something restraining the engine's power. After the remap, even a slight push on the pedal, i can feel the car just eager to go. Obviously the effects after the remap is you can here the tappet's the sound when the engines is fully warmed up to its ideal temperature runs faster then the usual and the rpm's swing smoothly thru out the band.

To my surprise the fuel consumption also decreases as satria neo is well known for its heavy drinker trade mark. Trust me you can feel the power increase especially at the low end range. Dylan also promote me to use the ron booster which converts the fuel for better burning thus increasing the engine efficiency and smoothen power delivery.

I am very satisfied with the result and now i have a problem on how to control myself from overwhelming joy of driving a remaped neo, i am confuse wether the car just got faster or my foot just looses it senses. The hot gases escape from the nozzle box through fixed nozzles C.

The nozzles permit an expansion of the exhaust gases which increases velocity and directs it against the buckets D on the turbine wheel. The high speed and power of the turbine are the results of the flow of these high-velocity gases against the turbine buckets.

The speed of the turbosupercharger is controlled by allowing excess gases, not required for turbine operation, to escape through the waste gate B , instead of through the turbine nozzles and turbine wheel.

With the waste gate closed, all the gases will go through the turbine, and it will revolve with maximum speed and power. With the waste gate wide open, the turbine will idle.

The power developed is transmitted through the shaft F to the impeller G of the centrifugal compressor, which is mounted on the opposite end of the shaft.

Engine air is ducted from a ramming air intake on the leading edge of the wing or front of the nacelle to the inlet of the compressor. The impeller O and diffuser H are enclosed in a suitable housing called the compressor casing J , which collects the compressed air from the diffuser. The rotating assembly is supported by ball and roller bearings which carry the thrust and static loads imposed.

The ball bearing K is located on the impeller end of the shaft, and takes the thrust load of the shaft, which is in the direction of the impeller when the turbosupercharger is running. The roller bearing L allows for expansion of the shaft.

The baffle ring M assures the proper distribution of the turbosupercharger cooling air between the nozzle box and the compressor casing. The baffle ring also serves as a shield to prevent the transfer of heat from the nozzle box to the compressor casing by radiation.

The turbosupercharger is lubricated by a built-in oil pump N , which is driven by a worm gear from a worm sleeve keyed to the shaft. The pump and bearings are enclosed by the bearing-and-pump casing P. The turbine wheel is cooled by a cooling cap. The standard type of cooling cap is of the convection type, and directs cooling air from the aircraft slipstream against the turbine wheel.

Lubrication of Turbosuperchargers Lubrication pump The turbosupercharger lubrication pump is really two separate positive-displacement pumps on the same shaft. One of the elements of the pump supplies oil to the gears and bearings. The other element is a scavenging pump which removes oil from the housing and returns it to the supply tank. There is a tachometer connection on the end of the pump shaft, from which the speed of the turbosupercharger can be determined. The oil for lubricating the turbosupercharger from the oil pump enters the inside of the bearing and pump housing through a shroud A which lubricates the pump drive gear B.

The oil is transferred from the shroud by the drive gear to the mesh of the drive gear and the worm thread sleeve C. The bearings are oiled by the splash from the drive gear, and by the oil mist which exists inside of the bearing housing as a result of the high rotation speeds and churning of the oil.

This combination of splashing and oil mist is ideal lubrication for the ball and roller bearings. Some turbosuperchargers are designed with jets which deliver oil directly on the ball and roller bearings. This provides no better lubrication than the oil mist, but it does provide for more efficient cooling of the bearing. The capacity of the scavenging element of the pump is about three times that of the pressure pump at all times.

Because of this, two thirds of the scavenging-pump delivery is air. The pumping of this air causes a slight vacuum in the bearing housing, which is necessary to prevent oil leakage through the shaft oil seals. The two shaft oil seals D , one on the turbine end and the other on the compressor end of the bearing housing, are not rubbing seals, but have a clearance from the shaft of 0. These seals are threaded to cause an inward flow, which tends to keep the oil inside the pump and bearing casing.

This action is assisted by the vacuum which is created inside the casing by the excess capacity of the scavenging pump. The dumbbell valve E operates by gravity. The intake of the scavenging pump is through this valve, and the valve position will always be such that the scavenging-pump intake will draw only from the bottom of the bearing and pump housing, regardless of the position of the plane in flight.

Turbosuperchargers are usually installed with a separate oil-supply tank of about one to two gallons capacity, which is normally about 75 per cent full of oil.

The excess volume of the tank is necessary to accommodate any foaming of the oil which may be induced by the scavenging pump. The rotor of the turbosupercharger operates at extremely high speeds compared with speeds normally encountered in other equipment -- 21, rpm for a rated altitude of 25, feet for one type. At this speed, the balls in the ball bearing, for example, are rotating at approximately 60, rpm about their own axis.

Bearings which will stand up under these extreme conditions of speed are of special design, and are manufactured with extra-fine precision.

It is obvious that special care must be used in the handling and fitting of these bearings during overhaul operations. It is also of utmost importance that no foreign matter be allowed to get into the lubricating-oil system, and that recommendations on the oil used and the method of operation of the turbosupercharger be closely followed.

Turbosupercharger Coo1ing Requirements Fig. Cooling air is required for the exhaust-stack shroud, the turbine-wheel cooling cap, the back of the turbine nozzle box, the compressor casing, the bearings, and the intercooler.

The exhaust stack is that part of the exhaust system which conducts the exhaust gas from the engine collector ring or exhaust manifold to the turbine nozzle box.

In the exhaust stack are one or more flexible joints to allow for thermal expansion and engine vibration. The usual design of the exhaust stack includes a ventilated shroud which is a concentric pipe surrounding the exhaust stack, and which is ventilated by a rammed-cooling-air blast.

This exhaust-stack shroud serves the dual purpose of forming a fire wall around the high-pressure exhaust stack, and providing a means for precooling the exhaust gases before entering the turbine nozzle box. The convection-type cooling cap delivers cooling air to the rim of the turbine wheel at the point of attachment of the turbine buckets to the wheel blank.

The air is discharged on the trailing edge of the wheel, to avoid recirculation of the air over the wheel. The bearings, compressor casing, and back of the nozzle box are cooled by a duct which delivers air radially inward toward the center of the turbosupercharger. This air stream is divided by the baffle ring, with approximately 40 per cent of the air passing between the baffle ring and nozzle box, and the remainder between the baffle ring and compressor casing.

The volume of intercooler cooling air required is normally about double the amount of the engine air which is cooled. Flaps or shutters, located downstream from the intercooler in the cooling-air stream, provide a control of the air temperature entering the carburetor. The turbosupercharger cooling air is taken aboard where full use can be made of the propeller slipstream, or of the velocity of the plane, to assure adequate air supply and distribution.

Care is taken in locating the cooling-air ducts, so that minimum heat will be picked up before the air reaches the turbosupercharger or intercooler. In particular, the cooling-duct intakes are located so that no hot exhaust gas or discharged engine-cooling air will be rammed into the cooling passages.

Turbosupercharger Regulation One of the advantages of the turbosupercharger is flexibility of control. The speed of the turbosupercharger rotor and, consequently, the pressure supplied to the engine, is controlled by changing the amount of exhaust gases that pass through the nozzles to drive the turbine wheel.

Opening the waste gate allows more exhaust gases to be bypassed, and the rotor speed is decreased. Conversely, closing the waste gate will increase the rotor speed. A hydraulic regulator automatically moves the waste gate to hold the nozzle-box pressure constant at the value determined by the position of the boost-control lever in the cockpit.

By changing the setting of the regulator, the proper exhaust pressure and corresponding manifold pressure can be obtained for the desired engine power, such as cruising, normal or military power. There is a tube leading from the nozzle box to the top bellows. The bottom bellows is evacuated and serves to prevent the top bellows from acting in response to atmospheric changes in pressure.

Inside the top bellows is mounted a spring, one end of which is connected to the junction between the two bellows, and the other end to the range-shifting control lever. This lever is connected by linkages to the cockpit boost control. The purpose of the spring and control-lever assembly is to allow the pilot to vary the pressure on the spring for different nozzle-box pressure, corresponding to different engine powers.

This spring tension just balances the pressure in the top bellows to the point where the servo-valve ports to the servo piston are closed. As pressure changes occur in the top bellows, they act on the servo valve and shift its position, thereby opening ports which direct oil under pressure into one side of the piston. The piston then moves under the unbalanced oil pressure, and moves the waste gate with it.

The servo piston continues to move the waste gate until the pressure in the nozzle box has been corrected. When corrected, the pressure in the bellows restores the servo valve to its closed-port position, and stops the piston motion. The regulating process, described above, occurs in a very short space of time, a few seconds at most.

Therefore, in actual operation, as soon as the exhaust pressure starts to change, the hydraulic regulator starts to move the waste gatem a direction to counteract this change. That is, for a given setting of the cockpit boost lever, the regulator always acts to maintain a constant exhaust pressure, and the actual exhaust pressure varies from this constant value only temporarily during those few seconds required by the hydraulic regulator to move the waste gate in a direction which restores the pressure.

For some pursuit airplanes equipped with turbosuperchargers, the size of the evacuated bellows in the regulator is reduced. This causes the atmospheric pressure to have some effect on the upper bellows and results in a slightly decreasing nozzle-box pressure with increasing altitude. This type of regulator holds an approximately constant manifold pressure without changing the setting of the boost control lever up to the airplane's rated altitude.

Installation Considerations Induction System The design and construction of the induction system is of primary importance in the application of a turbosupercharger system. The induction system carries the required engine air from the slipstream to and through the compressor element of the turbosupercharger, then through the intercooler to the engine carburetor.

Mention has been made of the use of rammed-air intakes. These intakes are specifically designed to take the required weight flow of air on board the airplane with the least disturbance of the slipstream over the air foil section. The "rammed-air intakes" are preferably located on the leading edge of the wing or engine cowl. When air scoops, which project from the surface of the aircraft are used, the trailing surface of the scoop is appropriately streamlined so that minimum drag is introduced.

Because of the forward motion of the plane, the "rammed-air intakes" tend to increase the pressure at the inlet to the compressor. This gain in pressure achieved by the ramming-engine-air intake, is particularly important in the turbosupercharged power plant, because this gain is multiplied by the compression ratios of the two stages of compression which follow.

The duct from the ramming-air intake usually consists of two or more sections of pipe connected by flexible joints. These flexible joints are installed between the compressor and the ramming-air intake to isolate vibration of the ship structure from the high-speed turbosupercharger compressor. These flexible connectors are also incorporated between the turbosupercharger compressor and the intercooler, and between the intercooler and the carburetor-air intake. In the case of the connecting duct to the carburetor inlet, the motion of the engine in its dynamic mounting must also be isolated by the flexible connectors.

Such flexible connectors usually consist of a neoprene or synthetic-rubber sleeve which is band-clamped to the abutting end of the duct section. Another factor in the design of the induction system is to minimize the pressure losses resulting from sharp bends, rapid changes in cross section, and use of undersize ducts. Usually the airplane design dictates the path of the induction system. The best use must be made of the space available to keep the induction-system losses low.

Since the internal pressure of the induction system at high altitudes is as much as 10 to 11 pounds per sq in. Any leakage which develops in the system represents a loss, and detracts from the efficiency of the installation. The installation of an inter-cooler of the proper size and design is important in maintaining the efficiency of the turbosupercharged power plant.

The intercooler should provide adequate cooling of the air discharged from the compressor, to assure the proper charge density. At the same time, the inter-cooler should not be of excessive weight, and should not offer too great a resistance to the engine air flow in the induction system.

The exhaust system of the turbo-supercharged power plant carries the exhaust gas from the cylinders to the nozzle box of the turbosupercharger.

This piping must also contain flexible joints to isolate vibration, and also to allow for expansion caused by heat. It is very important that the exhaust piping shall exert no stresses on the nozzle box. If stresses are allowed, the nozzle box will be distorted.

During high-altitude operation, the pressure inside the exhaust manifold may be 10 to 11 pounds per sq in. Again care must be taken to prevent leakage. Leaks in the exhaust system will always tend to enlarge because of the high temperatures of the exhaust gases. In normal installations, the exhaust stack is encircled by an exhaust cooling shroud. Cooling air is forced through this annular passage.

Gases leaking from the exhaust pipe will leak into this space, and not into the plane structure. Leakage of the exhaust gases will detract from the power available to drive the turbosupercharger, and will thereby reduce the critical altitude of the installation.

Care and Maintenance of Turbosuperchargers Turbosupercharger installations require very careful inspection and maintenance in service. The turbosupercharger, although very simple in construction, operates at very high speeds. Very great differences in temperature are prevalent in a relatively small piece of equipment.

The effective operation of the turbosupercharged power plant depends upon the efficient operation of all its component parts.

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