Home-Built Helium-Neon (HeNe) Laser

HeNe Laser Characteristics, Applications, Safety

Please, turn Javascript on in your browser then reload the page.
So we recommend taking 5 grams every day instead. Used in a variety of applications, including the detection of small defects at high speeds and over a large field of view in LCD and OLED flat panel displays, printed circuit boards, film and large format web materials, the Piranha XL XDR offers true exposure control. In excellent condition with a Winter hard case. Being is no biggie to me yet but it made all the difference when everyone who knew you WILL notice and the compliment they give only serve as further motivation. The slide and bell section are not original to each other, but are a correct period match. The dead and dying young-growth yellow-cedar trees were found in the wetter portions of the stand, as indicated by tree sizes and understory plants, another similarity with yellow-cedar decline in unmanaged forests. Not to be confused with the Xeno YBL, this is the original version.

Choose a video to embed

The Best Muscle-Building Supplements for Ectomorphs

This comparative study, a first of its kind as far as we know, standardizes outputs from three unique forest landscape models across spatial four regions and temporal , , scales, a range of climate scenarios PCM B1 and GFDL A1fi , species 30 total, most common species; region totals varied from 15 to 24 , and evaluation metric future: Standardizing in this manner enables an increased understanding of underlying drivers of differences across models that use diverse approaches and assumptions.

Hereafter, we refer to the two sets of model projections as "unrefined" and "refined" niche model projections. The unrefined projections define the future locations of the climatic conditions in which the species is found today and thus areas that are likely to be climatically suitable , whereas the refined projections define the areas that are likely to be climatically suitable in the future and, given the effects of soils, interactions between plant functional types, the effects of CO2 enrichment, and fire, will likely support the plant functional type to which the species belongs.

What It Means to Nursery Managers and Tree Planters" is an excellent short introduction intended for landscapers and their clients, urging that planting for climate change become integral to the profession. The authors Williams and Dumroese distinguish 3 types of assisted migration: Florida Torreya is the illustrated example of type 3. This paper by Susan March Leech et al. It was published 2 years after field experiments began for British Columbia's Assisted Migration Adaptation Trial , and is a superb overview of that effort.

Crucially, it sets the Canadian practices within the context of global climate initiatives in forestry. Climate Change Response Framework The Framework is a collaborative, cross-boundary approach among scientists, managers, and landowners to incorporate climate change considerations into natural resource management.

It provides an integrated set of tools, partnerships, and actions to support climate-informed conservation and forest management. Six Framework projects see map left encompass 19 states in the eastern USA , including 14 National Forests and millions of acres of forestland. Each regional project interweaves four components: Learn more about how the components interact to build a flexible, scalable, and effective strategy.

Climate Change Tools and Approaches for Land Managers 2nd edition, Map left shows dots for all the forest management institutional partners whose experiences in using the USFS climate resources have contributed to this second edition.

Beginning as a pilot program in northern Wisconsin, this highly collaborative effort expanded to several ecoregional projects across the midwest and northeast United States. It builds off of two fundamental ideas. First, because climate change inherently adds complexity and un- certainty to the process of making forest management decisions, there is no single "answer" for how managers should address climate change in management.

Additionally, differences in existing management goals and values will naturally result in a diversity of adaptation actions. Rather than providing recommendations or prescriptive actions, we designed a flexible approach that accommodates a diversity of management goals, forest ecosystems, ownership types, and spatial scales Swanston and Janowiak Given the need to consider incomplete information and to "learn by doing," adaptive management principles are well-suited for incorporating climate change considerations into management.

Although no active management is currently planned in these stands, swamp white oak Quercus bicolor and bur oak Quercus macrocarpa were identified as two potential species that could be planted in lowland hardwood forests to maintain forest cover if intervention was deemed necessary. These species are not currently present on the property but can be found in localized areas in northern Wisconsin, which would represent a small degree of assisted migration.

Forest Service Although "assisted migration" is rarely mentioned in this report, the need for it is evident, particularly in the description of how the species mix is expected to shift: Boreal species such as quaking aspen, paper birch, tamarack, and black spruce are projected to decrease in suitable habitat and biomass across the assessment area.

Species with ranges that extend to the south such as American basswood, black cherry, northern red oak, and eastern white pine may increase in suitable habitat and biomass across the assessment area. Although "assisted migration" is only slighted mentioned in this report, it will be apparent to all knowledgeable readers that such assistance will be vital in this region.

Notably, the boreal tree species with their southern-most current ranges in this region will greatly diminish or entirely wink out, so more southerly species will need to be introduced to ensure multi-layer forest health. These species are currently very common across the landscape and play a dominant role in many forests, and the reduction of suitable habitat for these species may affect a large portion of northern Wisconsin and the western Upper Peninsula.

Report excerpt at right: Balsam fir, black ash, paper birch, and tamarack also have low modifying factor scores, suggesting that there are life-history traits or biological stressors that may cause these species to lose even more suitable habitat than the model results indicate.

A given species will not necessarily be able to migrate to newly available habitat and colonize successfully, however. Species not currently present in the assessment area would require long-distance migration, whether intentional or unintentional, to occupy suitable habitat in the assessment area. Because the Great Lakes and the Straits of Mackinac present substantial barriers to migration, southern species may be even less able to occupy suitable habitat in the eastern Upper Peninsula.

Habitat fragmentation and the limited dispersal ability of seeds could also hinder the northward movement of the more southerly species, despite the increase in habitat suitability. Most species can be expected to migrate more slowly than their habitats will shift. Of course, human-assisted migration is a possibility for some species and is expected to become tested and used during the next decades.

Click left chart for a short pdf by the forestry extension service, Michigan State University. USDA regional report A major transition in forest composition is not expected to occur in the coming decades. Global warming is expected to occur with strong latitudinal differences: Projected shifts in habitat suitability for P. Red, yellow, blue and green represent lost, threatened, persistent and emergent habitat, respectively.

Approximately 56 per cent of the contemporary distribution is predicted to be lost or threatened habitat by Mapped projections indicate the shift in the trailing edge encompasses the entire managed boreal forest in Canada.

Emergent suitable habitat totalled 28 per cent. Projections of the ecological genetic model into the climate of the decade centered on indicate the challenge for forest management is in assuring a timely transfer of trailing edge populations to the future location of the climates for which they are optimally suited. Seed deployment zones for P. Each zone identifies a geographic area defined by two non-overlapping confidence intervals 7. Where and when to plant long-lived tree species in a rapidly changing climate may be one of the most significant and perplexing components of forest management.

Historically, geographically-based seed transfer guidelines have been used in reforestation to manage the risk of maladaptation. Under a rapidly changing climate, however, the traditional guidelines lead toward increasing maladaptation as stands age. An updated paradigm for seed transfer guidelines is an explicit acceptance of proactive transfer in anticipation of future climatic conditions such that there is a calculated initial elevated risk of maladaptation in an attempt to optimize adaptation over the life of the stand.

The projected redistribution of western seed deployment zones by Figure 7B are not as geographically disparate as in eastern Canada. But, the loss of habitat in interior Alaska and along the Mackenzie River corridor down through Alberta could eliminate suitable climatypes before they provide seed for reforestation. Consequently, there should be a sense of urgency in building a robust seed bank.

Movement of genotypes to much colder climates may result in poor seedling survival and suboptimal growth due to frost damage. Rather, we recommend moderate scale transfers among breeding regions that are supported by both appropriate climate differences and population performance from field trials.

For example, a transfer from central breeding region D1 northwest into region G2 represents a 1. This transfer also results in slightly better performance of introduced D1 material compared to the local G2 sources Table 3, 1.

Genotypes adapted to warmer region D1 temperatures would be safe to transfer under current climates and additionally be suitable under warming of mean annual temperature by 0. Given the uncertainty of future climate projections, methodological limitations inherent to provenance and progeny testing, and the need for planting stock to survive current climate conditions, assisted migration prescriptions should likely avoid very large transfer distances.

While results from experimental seed transfers in provenance and progeny trials may be among the most valuable information to develop climate change adaptation strategies, the data is not without problems. Genotypes tested in field trials may not have experienced rare climate events such as unseasonal or extreme cold temperatures in the boreal north. Thus, good growth observed in populations transferred to colder climates may not necessarily reflect their long-term fitness. Another technical limitation of genetic field test is that competition in older trials may exaggerate genetic differentiation of genotypes.

We therefore recommend that transfers should generally be moderate approx. Such restrictions could gradually be relaxed to allow for longer distance transfers as the climate continues to warm.

Only the top-performing families should be chosen for assisted migration prescriptions. As an alternative climate adaptation strategy to seed transfer among breeding regions, Table S1 may also be used to remove genotypes from local breeding populations, if their climate sensitivity is indicated by performing poorly when transferred to warmer breeding regions.

USFS Assisted migration underway! February news article: Forest Service researchers that the cause was due to climate change. With climate change, there has been less snow on the ground to insulate the shallow roots from extreme temperatures. And with less snow on the ground, frozen roots have led to the decline of 60 to 70 percent of trees covering , acres in Alaska and British Columbia.

Researchers also believe that yellow cedars may thrive in areas outside of where it has already migrated, leading to the hope that assisted migration may restore the dwindling population of these trees. However, there is also concern that assisted migration may cause yellow cedars to become an invasive species. Nevertheless, a trial planting of yellow cedars in Yakutat has been successful with a first-year survival rate of more than 90 percent. What change in the environment triggered tree death in previously healthy forests?

A chronology of the natural his- tory of yellow-cedar helps put forest decline into temporal context. The location of Pleistocene refugia Carrara et al. An ongoing population-genetics study will address this hypothesis for yellow-cedar. At one location near Petersburg, Alaska, cedar pollen became abundant about years ago Ager et al.

The Little Ice Age c. The ages of mature yellow-cedar trees, whether they are dead or still living, indicate that most of them regenerated and grew to their canopy status in existing forests during the Little Ice Age Hennon and Shaw , Beier et al.

It was during the Little Ice Age that yellow-cedar became more abundant at lower elevations, where it would later be most vulnerable to decline. The onset of yellow-cedar decline coincided with the end of the Little Ice Age Hennon et al. A large pulse of yellow-cedar mortality occurred in the s and s Hennon and Shaw during a notably warm period of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation Mantua A conservation strategy for a climate-sensitive species needs to consider the manner in which past, current, and future climates affect the various ecological traits and life stages of that species.

Because climate changes through time, the adaptive range of species becomes a moving target, and a conservation strategy must be dynamic.

Climate is expected to impact each tree species in a unique manner; therefore, there is a need to model each species individually Iverson et al. Our conceptual approach is to integrate snow cover and drainage in order to identify unsuitable, suitable, and potential new habitats for yellow-cedar. Specifically, we nested soil drainage within favorable climate envelopes, with an emphasis on adequate snow-cover levels, to define habitat suitability as the foundation for a conservation and management strategy for yellow-cedar figure 7.

One species that might substitute for yellow-cedar in the maladapted zone is western red-cedar Thuja plicata [Donn ex D. Don] , which grows in some of the declining yellow-cedar forests at lower elevations in Alaska and British Columbia, south of latitude 57 degrees N.

Western redcedar is a calcium-accumulating, decay-resistant, long-lived tree of commercial value that is prized by the local indigenous people. Its bark and wood properties, including wood chemistry, differ from yellow-cedar's, but the two trees have some ecological redundancy and offer similar ecosystem services. The northern range extent and elevational limit of western redcedar suggest that future warmer climate conditions will favor this tree in Alaska, which also appears to be the case in coastal British Columbia Hamann and Wang More knowledge is needed on redcedar's adaptation to the same freezing injury that afflicts yellow-cedar before intensive efforts of promoting redcedar in declining forests would be justified Schaberg et al.

When favorable climate develops beyond its existing range, yellow-cedar may be particularly slow to migrate because of its low reproductive capacity Harris The previously mentioned genetic study is designed to test the Holocene migration of yellow-cedar, which we suspect is slow and still proceeding toward the northeast.

Yellow-cedar is absent from much of the widespread forested wetland in these areas, even though the conditions appear to be favorable for yellow-cedar and may have been so for thousands of years. Yellow-cedar may benefit from some assistance in migration to speed the colonization of new habitats as the climate warms. Assisted or facilitated migration is the deliberate movement by humans of genotypes and species into areas in which the projected climate is believed to be associated with high probabilities of persistence.

These activities can be controversial, because widespread movements of species can be interpreted as fostering the introduction of invasive species that could bring unanticipated consequences.

Assisted migration may be required for species with narrow resource requirements or poor dispersal ability Warren et al. As a cautious step, we conducted a trial planting of yellow-cedar near Yakutat, Alaska, an area of discontinuous occurrence for yellow-cedar but still within its range limits; Hennon and Trummer to test the survival and growth of yellow-cedar where it did not previously grow.

New USFS technical report: A conservation and management strategy for yellow-cedar in Alaska is presented in the context of climate change. This document has four sections. Section 1 covers the ecology and silvics of yellow-cedar, as well as other background information. Section 2 outlines knowledge on the extensive mortality to yellow-cedar, including the role of climate. Section 3 describes opportunities for the conservation and active management of yellow-cedar on lands that are considered either suitable or unsuitable for yellow-cedar.

Section 4 uses risk models and yellow-cedar distribution data to evaluate, quantify, and map areas of habitat suitability for yellow-cedar, both now and predicted through the year Yellow-cedar at risk of forest decline by the end of the century varies considerably by geography in coastal Alaska. Some areas are already heavily affected by decline, and risk is not expected to increase appreciably.

Other areas are currently unaffected but are expected to develop decline. Still other areas are expected to remain healthy. This report provides a vulnerability assessment and the scientific foundation for conservation and active management of yellow-cedar on suitable and vulnerable lands.

Specific management considerations are presented regionally and for 33 separate geographic zones where yellow-cedar grows in coastal Alaska. The high genetic variability of yellow-cedar in Alaska shows no evidence of a genetic bottleneck, and is consistent with yellow-cedar occupancy in Alaska throughout the Pleistocene.

The ages of mature yellow-cedar trees, whether they are dead or still living, indicate that most regenerated and attained upper canopy status during the Little Ice Age. The solution will incorporate can-sweeps, high level conveyors, a 2-lane divider, a magnetic vertical elevator and cable conveyors.

This will be a three-phase installation, with the first phase being installed and commissioned in May. The line will handle 3-piece food cans at per minute, with the capability of handling cans per minute at a later date. Olmec-UK has developed a vision system to verify cable assemblies before soldering during the manufacture of instruments for the automotive industry. The system differs from many vision systems since it is used interactively by the assembly technicians rather than replacing them.

The operators present the cables in a particular colour sequence to a precise position on a PCB. The cables are clamped into position and the PCB then passes to the next station for soldering. Operators use their fingers to slide two-wire cables along a pair of grooves in the cable block until the bare ends of the cables are positioned over the solder pads.

The vision system checks the colour of the cables and tracks the position of the cables as the operators move them into position, using an edge detection method. When the bare metal ends of the cables are in within 1 mm of the soldering position, the system initiates spring-loaded clamps across the grooves to hold them in position and the operators can then remove their hands. Once the cables are clamped, the vision system makes a second positional check since there is some variation in the speed with which operators slide the cables to confirm that the ends are in the correct position.

If they are not, the clamps are released and the process is repeated. The procedure is repeated for each of the 4 cable blocks on the PCB before it is released for soldering. Although colour imaging is a standard machine vision technique, the cables used in this application are very reflective. This makes differentiating between colours such as red, orange and brown quite challenging. The traditional machine vision solution would be to use high intensity dome illumination, but this is not practical, so a large flat illumination system was designed to minimize reflections.

The interactive vision system not only acts as an aid to the worker but also controls how they do their job, since the cameras are part of the workflow. The operator can't move onto the next PCB unless the camera shows that everything is in the right position. Multipix are pleased to announce the distribution of Spectrum Illumination lighting.

Designers and manufactures of award-winning line of products that apply the benefits of high output LED's for use in machine vision applications. Very large lighting, for example: Spectrum Illumination Monster Series Lights are engineered to provide an impressive , hours of trouble free operation and a 6 year warranty across all their product range. Visit our website to find out more about this range of products!

MIL provides a complete set of tools for the entire process of imaging application development including feasibility testing, prototyping, application creation and deployment. A team of highly-skilled computer scientists, mathematicians, software engineers and physicists works diligently to foresee new industry requirements and offer timely enhancements to MIL to simplify and accelerate application development.

Now, as we deploy this more powerful next-generation vision system, MIL continues to impress. MIL has been a foundation for building these two assets into our products for over 10 years.

MIL is the right choice for us. Products include frame grabbers, vision processors, imaging computers, industrial and smart cameras, and application development software. The N35 model offers the additional benefit of an enhanced pattern projector to give double the resolution in X, Y and Z for static objects.

The cameras feature two built-in 1. The Ensenso cameras are equipped with a random pattern generator which provides texture on the scanned object to ensure that each object point is well characterized for stereo camera images to allow a complete 3D model to be created.

The N35 cameras are also equipped with a FlexView pattern projector for use with static objects, which doubles the effective resolution of the 3D point cloud, ensuring more exact object contours, finer image details and more robust 3D data. The FlexView generator uses a piezo-mechanical process to rearrange re-arrange the projection pattern to achieve a higher resolution. The system can generate up to eight different patterns producing up to 8 stereo image pairs.

All of the additional data is used to generate a single 3D point cloud, giving more robust data on difficult surfaces. This is ideal for capturing 3D images of products made of metal or stainless steel. The optimized SDK also allows the cameras to detect simple 3D shapes such as surfaces, spheres and cylinders even better.

As a leading supplier of image processing solutions and components, with a range that already includes Datalogic smart cameras and vision sensors, FRAMOS is now adding Datalogic vision processors from the Italian automation supplier to its portfolio.

Datalogic's graphic programming environment IMPACT, offers a diverse number of image processing algorithms, which can be parameterised in detail and linked with great flexibility. Complex image processing solutions can now be created in minutes instead of days or weeks. In addition, when combined with industrial standard cameras, e. The vibration and impact-resistant design gives a reliable and long-lasting automation system.

Photos and video recordings from up to 4 cameras of varying types and resolutions can be analysed on one PC. Long cables enable up to four inspection points to be operated with a single image processing PC.

In addition to numerous image processing algorithms, the software also offers direct interfaces to common factory automation systems, for easy system integration. System integrators can implement a wide variety of image processing projects, for example: LCD or solar panel checks , high-speed analysis e. Available in two different resolutions; the P10 model features a high speed CMOS sensor with x pixels at over fps, while the P15 model utilises a high resolution CMOS sensor with x pixels at up to 60 fps.

Lenses and illuminators are fully interchangeable and can be mounted and replaced by the user. Five focal lengths and seven lighting options result in 70 different combinations delivering outstanding installation flexibility while offering superior image acquisition capabilities. With compact dimensions and the rotating connectors, the P-Series can be installed even in extremely narrow spaces.

The IP67 rated metal housing guarantees maximum protection in the most harsh factory environments containing dust, water and oil. Emergent Vision's HS is setting new standards in ultra-fast high speed imaging for industrial vision applications. Capable of 32 fps at 20 megapixels, the HS is a breakthrough for the industry, increasing production while maximizing resolution. The HS is ideal for industrial and medical systems where the ability to detect minute defects while maintaining a high throughput is essential.

With a global shutter and 10GigE interface a world first for the vision industry the HS sets unparalleled benchmark performance with an increased bandwidth.

It is capable of high resolution, high frame rate and efficient allocation of bandwidth when utilizing more than one camera through a single connection. The HS is available in either monochrome or colour utilizing a 35mm image format allowing for an extensive selection of optics, making the HS ultra-flexible to meet challenging industrial imaging applications. The high resolution CMOS sensor with Global Shutter ensures zero smearing at ultra-high speeds and, with its high sensitivity, is perfect for low light imaging applications.

For example machines can increase accuracy and throughput at the same time. The flexible exposure and integration control optimizes the camera's exposure under a wide range of lighting conditions and matches the integration time with illumination control for maximum benefit.

With this convincing feature set we are proud to have Emergent Vision's leading HS completing our strong industry portfolio. It enables applications in Diagnostic Analysis, Semiconductor, Food Inspection, Automotive, Medical Imaging and Entertainment to benefit from the newest imaging technologies and to enhance the quality and profitability.

Ireland has been an increasingly important market area for us so we felt that now was the right time to establish a dedicated office there. Not only will we be in a position to offer enhanced local support in Ireland " concluded Williamson, " but our Irish customers will enjoy dealing with an Irish team with many years of experience in the Irish machine vision market.

A57 to demonstrate a range of vision products designed to create innovative solutions for the food and beverage industry. Multipix highlight which is suitable for certain applications. It has been updated with the latest technologies and products. Now in its 3rd edition, the handbook acts as an invaluable reference guide for machine vision users as well as providing up-to-date information on products and suppliers. The pages are packed with the latest information on machine vision technologies from the fields of illumination, optics, cameras, acquisition, software, cabling, systems and accessories.

Around one third of the content is devoted to the fundamentals of machine vision, with explanations of the various technologies supported by clear graphics designed to illustrate complex subjects in a very understandable way. Clearly arranged tables provide all the details needed in order to select the best vision components for a particular application. The new Fujifilm HF-XA series of lenses maintains high resolution across the entire image even with change of aperture and working distance.

It consists of five models with fixed focal length: The compact C-Mount lens comes with a small diameter measuring only The 3 Megapixel lenses fully resolve at a pixel pitch of 4. This enables a flexible usage of the lenses in versatile applications with consistent image quality. The milestone camera was from the completely re-designed second generation series of the USB 3 uEye CP cameras, featuring the latest 2. This camera sets a new standard in terms of light sensitivity, dynamic range and colour reproduction and provides excellent image quality with extraordinarily low-noise performance.

IDS was founded as a two-man business In and since the company has been developing and producing digital cameras for industrial use. The unique IDS Software Suite supplied with every camera provides an extremely easy integration is one of the company? IDS now has more than employees worldwide in subsidiaries in USA and Japan, offices in France and United Kingdom as well as distribution partners almost everywhere in the world.

There is a new building on the company site being built, which will double our production area. His short video statement regarding the ,th camera? Setting new standards for performance and usability, making it the number one choice for machine vision users: Quite simply creating solutions for customers, that were previously not possible. It enables cost savings and improved time to market: It serves all industries with a library of more than operators for blob analysis, morphology, matching, measuring, identification, and 3D vision, to name just a few.

The new version Version 4. It is also available available Linux and Linux Embedded. The sensors are characterised by their unique ability to partially read out applied AOIs Areas of Interest both horizontally and vertically. As a result, they reach a top speed of more than 1, fps.

This makes these new sensors ideally suited for use in slow motion or high speed applications as well as in classic industrial and visualization tasks. By simply adjusting the pixel clock and activating the camera memory in the uEye Cockpit within the IDS Software Suite, the sensor speed can be increased depending on the camera model. This is perfect for users with high-frequency applications such as eye tracking or ophthalmology.

IDS Software Suite 4. This enables the user to flash per line, if desired, and therefore to use different light sources in a single application. It offers the same excellent image quality, and with its extraordinarily low noise performance sets the same new standards in terms of light sensitivity, dynamic range and colour reproduction.

The new sensor can run at a frame rate of 41 fps at full resolution. The IMX sensor is perfect for applications demanding excellent image quality even in low-light conditions such as in ITS and in quality assurance applications. This will include many aspects of package inspection; high-speed inspection and visitors are invited to bring their own samples to see high-resolution surface defect detection in action. Using a patented 'shape from shading" technology', information on the three-dimensional shape of an object can be deduced from the shading of its surfaces.

This allows defects of just a few microns diameter and depth to be detected on a variety of material surfaces. Visitors to the show can bring their own samples along to put this to the test. The package inspection demonstrator will illustrate a wide variety of inspection applications including OCR and print quality as well as 3D inspection using laser triangulation.

The cameras, with resolutions ranging from VGA to 5 Mpixels and operating at different frame rates to suit the particular inspection are located on a continuous conveyor system.

Also on show will be a high speed imaging system which will show image sequences produced from a miniature roller coaster system. PMMI, The Association for Packaging and Processing Technologies, represents the voice of more than North American manufacturers of equipment, components and materials for processing and packaging.

The Association Partner Pavilion provides an opportunity for partner organizations to network with like-minded organizations, cultivate existing relationships and serve as a resource for the 50, attendees present at both shows. To learn more about the PPMA, visit http: The vision system checks that the information on the label is correct as well as identifying missing or partial print. The system handles a variety of bottles at a variety of speeds.

The bottles are randomly fed into a servo-controlled starwheel which rotates each bottle in turn to the camera position. A distortion-free image is produced so there are no false rejects and no possibility of any rogue products getting through. Since the bottles do not need to be oriented before entering the system, speeds up to a minute can be achieved. The rotation of the bottle is synchronised with the scanning speed of the camera to eliminate deformations in the image.

If the bottle rotates too fast the image is compressed and the pharmacode cannot be read and optical character recognition is also difficult. Similarly, if the bottle rotates too slowly, the image is stretched. By precisely matching the mechanics of the starwheel with the image acquisition, the system offers a stability that minimises both false rejects and further software processing steps.

Robert Pounder, Technical Director at Olmec, said: The Label Unwrap system design ensures the product is held captive and cannot be released unless it is acceptable; this eliminates the possibility of a product reaching a customer incorrectly coded or without any code at all.

Olmec Ltd is a vision systems integrator with core competencies in industrial vision, mechanical engineering and controls systems. The company specializes in the supply and installation of high performance vision systems into existing, new and OEM machinery processes. Olmec-UK, a leading vision systems integrator, has strengthened its design and manufacturing teams with local expertise through the addition of Rob Newton and Scott Straub as automation engineers, Ryan Swain as a vision software engineer and Jaymes Truman as an apprentice electrical technician.

These new appointments reflect the growing number of integration projects being undertaken by the company. Olmec Technical Director, Robert Pounder, said: Existing customers have seen the real benefits offered by vision inspection and have asked us to add vision to more of their production lines and we have also been awarded several projects by new customers.

This has led us to expanding in the key areas which are a real strength of the company. He has extensive experience with Rockwell Automation plcs and Cognex vision systems. He has specialized in both electrical and HMI design. Ryan Swain is a graduate from Hull University and has worked on hardware and embedded systems, including the development of an Android app to control a full size Dalek, complete with sensors, cameras etc! He has special responsibility for software development in a variety of programming languages and for vision testing.

The patient leaflets are hand-inserted into the product carton and Olmec has worked in close collaboration with the supplier to develop an extremely simple user-interface. Patient leaflets are dispensed from a friction feeder and a simple code-reading system reads the pharmacode and compares it to the code in a database to confirm that it is the correct leaflet.

An interface with the leaflet feeder ensures that incorrect leaflets are automatically rejected and do not reach the packer. The user interface is designed so that the operator simply has to select the correct recipe for the product and the system does the rest. The packing line has several operators working together and great care has been taken to optimise the read-rate of the leaflets to ensure that there is no delay in their delivery to the operators.

The company specialises in the supply and installation of high performance vision systems into existing, new and OEM machinery processes. Basler have introduced a new in-camera image optimisation technology called PGI which improves image quality using a combination of improved sharpness, denoising, colour anti-aliasing and 5 x 5 debayering.

Industrial cameras typically include a standard set of camera features for pre-processing image data creating high quality images but world leading camera manufacturer Basler have now pushed these boundaries even further with their innovative PGI technology. These individual processes are used to eliminate colour errors, ensuring colour fidelity even in the finest image details, as well as excellent sharpness and reduced image noise.

These preparatory steps for image data, all performed within the camera, reduces the work load on the interface PC which ensures maximum processing resource for other tasks. Visit our website to find out more about the different methods used and to view the Basler White Paper on this.

The eight new cameras deliver up to fps and include the unique PGI feature set. The following camera models are in series production: Global Shutter technology Resolutions from 2. Multipix Imaging bring a further nine new models to the ace GigE cameras series from Basler.

The new models feature 1. The various monochrome and colour cameras models are available with global or rolling shutter as well as in NIR-optimized variants or the HDTV format.

The models with 1. The 2 MP models are available with 60 fps and global shutter acA Basler also offers monochrome and colour variants with 25 fps in an HDTV format and with rolling shutter acA Olmec UK has designed a turnkey laser height system for inspecting bearings used in the railway industry. Using an LMI Gocator 3D smart camera, which includes an integrated laser source and optics and provides on-board processing of 3D data, the system measures the height of various bearings used in bogies in the rail industry.

The bearing consists of a number of different components and if any part is missing the height of the bearing will differ from that which is expected. The Gocator sensor is mounted over the existing conveyor on the OE Line and offers a field of view of — mm and a measurement depth range of mm.

The Gocator records profile images and measures the height of the finished product. If the height of the component is not within the expected tolerances then the conveyor belt is stopped and an audible alarm raised as well as an alarm displayed on the touch screen. An integrated industrial PC is connected to the Gocator for management of the overall system. Error handling and interfacing to the existing process is handled using a Programmable Logic Controller.

Should an error occur, the conveyor is halted to ensure no faulty product can pass through for packing. A remote access capability allows Olmec to support the system quickly and easily.

The ICX sensor-based LtR reliably delivers full resolution frames at the maximum achievable speed. This camera with a colour or monochrome CCD sensor in 1 optical format provides high resolution of 6MP with an excellent combination of features tailored for applications where high speed, sensitivity and resolution are critical, for example in traffic, tolling, ophthalmology, life sciences, metrology, high-speed inspection, machine vision and NIR applications.

Industrial and scientific applications need to make quantifiable measurements or diagnostics based on nuanced colour variations or minute details in the image. To provide true-to-life colour in a consistent and repeatable manner, Lumenera has designed advanced Colour Correction Matrices CCMs to better define and contrast colours that are difficult to reproduce orange, red, pink and yellow hues.

These advanced techniques retune the image to be true to life. The cameras feature lower noise electronics, higher-grade components, and Lumenera's unique thermal management technology. The end result is high quality images with extremely low noise and high dynamic range. The camera includes MB of onboard memory for frame buffering, ensuring dependable and reliable image delivery even in the most demanding environments.

For example, a vision system streaming high resolution images while simultaneously executing complex vision algorithms and controlling positioning motors, may experience delayed or suspended response times for a brief instant. When the host response is suspended, built-in memory temporarily holds the image data until the computer is ready to receive again. Image data will never be lost under reasonable processing conditions.

Lumenera takes the lead with the LtR buffer technology delivering all frames at full speed and max resolution without introducing latency. The compact, lightweight yet robust design of this camera, measuring 43 x 43 x 65 mm, ensures easy integration into tight spaces with 4 mounting points on all 4 sides to withstand rugged industrial applications. The fully locking USB 3. No frame grabber is required. Lumenera has used its extensive knowledge in manufacturing sophisticated scientific cameras, resulting in a high level of product quality, performance repeatability and consistency that is exceptional in the industry.

The three compact Adlink EOS embedded vision systems on the Bloodhound SSC jet and rocket powered car can each accept and record 4 independent HD feeds from cameras in any of the 25 camera locations around the car, meaning that data from 12 cameras can be acquired on any one run. Each recorder also provides a single H. The live video transmission has to be capable of reliable operation at speeds up to Bloodhound's target of mph. Recent tests in the desert at Hakskeen Pan, South Africa where video from the camera system installed on a Jaguar F-type vehicle was transmitted to a jet aircraft, have shown successful video and audio communication transmissions at closing speeds of up mph, in readiness for the next phase which is integration of the video system into Bloodhound itself.

The video data stream output will be connected to Bloodhound's cockpit instrument panel computer and the vehicle's radio modems via a router. The independent channels from each recorder can be simultaneously transmitted in real time and the cockpit instrument panel computer can also display one of these channels on one of the cockpit instrument displays.

The number of camera locations on Bloodhound has now increased to There are five safety-critical locations and camera feeds from these will be used on all runs.

These cover the instruments and controls, forward facing and rear facing fin tops, the rocket fuel connection hose and the rocket plume. Small scale rocket plume imaging tests carried out last year showed that the UV range of the spectrum provides useful information in addition to traditional colour imaging of the rocket output. The next stage of testing will be on the actual rocket to be used on Bloodhound. The rocket plume will be recorded in Finland using an Optronis high speed camera and the UV camera in the near future.

We continue to work closely with the Bloodhound engineering team to address each issue as it arises, and we are delighted that we are keeping up to pace with the overall development program. The MTC was established in with the objective of bridging the gap between academia and industry and has more than 60 members, including many of the UK's leading engineering companies.

The MTC provides a unique environment to bring the country's leading academics, engineers and industry professionals together to develop and demonstrate new technologies on an industrial scale. This allows its clients to develop new manufacturing processes in a neutral industrial setting without the constraints of a commercial production environment. MTC delivers solutions across UK manufacturing, with clients representing a diverse range of companies across a number of sectors.

These include aerospace automotive, transport, healthcare, ICT, robotics, food production, defence and marine. With 'automated Inspection and artificial intelligence' forming part of the 'Intelligent Automation' research theme and 'automated in-process and digital inspection' featuring strongly in the 'Metrology and NDT 'research theme, MTC had already established a Vision Laboratory as part of its world class facilities.

We are currently the only member who specialises in vision technology. The MTC offers a tailored service designed to meet the needs of individual companies and is not limited to MTC members. This comprehensive display illustrates the breadth of imaging technology available for both industrial and scientific applications. Lenses and optics from Sill Optics, Schneider Kreuznach and Zeiss will be on show, as well as those from Opto Engineering whose product range includes a variety of lenses that perfectly match all Xenics IR cameras.

In addition, an updated version of the LensSENSOR app for the easy calculation and design of optics for machine vision systems is now available. The Imaging and Vision Handbook has been available for Apple devices since the beginning of , and the release of Vision Docs means that that it can now be accessed over all mobile platforms. This valuable reference source for the technical fundamentals in all areas of imaging and machine vision is fully searchable and the selection guides are interactive enabling quick access to the relevant data.

Specifying any two of the parameters of focal length, object distance and object size allows automatic calculation of the third. The app also allows the determination of the maximum object width and height, working distance and aperture angle after selecting the sensor size used.

The app can also calculate the maximum resolution which can be achieved depending on the particular configuration. LensSENSOR also reliably helps machine vision users choose the most appropriate data transfer interface either by issuing a recommendation or by calculating the maximum data rate depending on the selected data type, sensor resolution and the interface used.

This comprehensive event features over 40 seminars plus machine vision training tasters from the European Imaging Academy, hands-on workshops with 2D and 3D vision systems and an exhibition by over 25 leading machine vision manufacturers.

The 40 seminars are split over 6 parallel tracks and will focus on learning rather than product presentations. Newcomers to vision can learn how machine vision can add value and acquire knowledge of what to ask when specifying and buying vision systems.

Vision experts can hear from industry experts about new techniques, new standards and new technologies. Everyone will have the opportunity to meet integrators and gain contacts in the growing area of automation as well as networking with experts in the field of machine vision.

One track will exclusively be delivered by the European Imaging Academy's chief instructor and will feature sessions covering all aspects of machine vision theory. Another track will provide extended hands-on sessions using the latest machine vision technology.

Anyone wishing to attend can download the full program and register on-line at www. The registration process will allow attendees to configure their personal agenda and request specific meetings and discussions. Some sessions are likely to be particularly popular and will be allocated on a first come, first served basis, so early registration is strongly encouraged.

An added bonus is the lunchtime keynote speech to be delivered by Richard Noble OBE, previous land speed record holder and project director of Bloodhound SSC - the British attempt to be the first to break mph on land. This will be based on the highly successful version held in Germany in November , which attracted more than visitors.

There will be a wide range of informative talks covering all aspects of machine vision, from introductory to advanced user level, with a number of parallel sessions so that visitors can choose to attend the blend of talks that best meet their needs.

The talks will focus on the latest technology and developments rather than specific products. At the same time, over 25 machine vision manufacturers are expected to exhibit, running hands-on demonstrations of hardware and software that you can dip in and out of between presentations! The technology forum builds on this event and harnesses content from the successful forum in held recently in Germany.

I am very excited to bring such an event to the UK. There will be demonstrations of portion control, high speed label inspection and the inspection of fill levels in opaque bottles. On show will be the LMI Gocator 3D smart camera carrying out 3D profiling on blocks of cheese with the resulting volumetric measurements used to control the position of the cutting knife for slicing. High-speed label inspection is an integral tool for the packaging industry. This will be illustrated using a high resolution line scan camera to acquire images from objects moving at high speed for bar code reading, lot code reading and logo positioning.

Fill level determination of liquids in opaque bottles requires the use of cameras sensitive to near infrared radiation, allowing them to see through the bottle. This will be demonstrated using one of the latest NIR cameras, which can also check the correct alignment of the cap on the bottle. These new XDR models are optimized to provide extended dynamic range, better signal-to-noise ratio and improved overall performance in a wide range of lighting conditions.

Used in a variety of applications, including the detection of small defects at high speeds and over a large field of view in LCD and OLED flat panel displays, printed circuit boards, film and large format web materials, the Piranha XL XDR offers true exposure control. Applications where the product speed may vary lead to under or over exposure when exposure times are fixed.

Exposure control, however, provides more precise control and consistent exposure however much the speed may vary. Exposure control also allows different exposures on different lines for extended dynamic range. This delivers extremely high image quality for high-speed applications. The high speed and high resolution brings faster throughput and can also lower system cost since with fewer cameras may be needed for any given application.

The choice of 8 or 12 rows provides the flexibility to meet a larger number of inspection needs. The improved signal-to-noise ratio ensures better detection of smaller defects in various lighting conditions. The new camera features the field-proven industry-standard CLHS interface for very high speed data transfer over long transmission distances with flexible cabling.

T2IR provides monitoring, diagnostics, track and trace, and buffers to further improve reliability, which in turn delivers more uptime, more productivity, and lower costs. The ba ttle between materialists and religious orders over the years, in which materialist evolutionists grapple with creationists and intelligent design proponents, seems to be a feud between two fundamentalist camps. Nowhere in such battles are the abilities or wisdom of accomplished mystics found.

The nature and role of consciousness, both in this dimension and beyond it, are likely far too subtle to be profitably engaged by the level of debate that predominates today. As this essay will explore later, those issues are not merely fodder for idle philosophical pursuit, but at their root lies the crux of the current conundrum that humanity finds itself in, as we race toward our self-destruction. White Science does not really know what energy is ; it can only describe its measurable effects.

Our universe may have begun as pure energy and even if it did not, all matter appears to be comprised of energy , and consciousness may be required for our universe to exist at all, which may be part of the quantum paradox. There is evidence that evolution is not purely the province of chance mutations, but that organisms can affect their evolution at the genetic level.

The gre atest scientists readily admitted that the theories and data of physics, that hardest of the hard sciences, drew highly limited descriptions of reality, and those scientists were usually, to one extent or another, mystics. If textbook science falls far short of explaining reality, what can be said within its framework that is useful?

Our industrialized world is based on textbook science and feats such as putting men on the Moon were performed within the parameters of textbook science. With the waning of overspecialization and overreliance on reductionism in the last decades of the 20 th century, multidisciplinary works have proliferated and will tend to dominate the references for this essay. I have found them not only very helpful for my own understanding, but they are appropriate references for a generalist essay.

I have also avoided scientific terminology when feasible. The main stream theory is that matter consists of elementary particles which are all forms of energy , and their interaction with the Higgs field is responsible for all mass. Almost all mass in the known universe consists of protons in hydrogen atoms, and those protons are in turn comprised of quarks , and electrons and neutrinos are the other first generation fundamental particles.

Protons have a positive electric charge, electrons a negative charge, and neutrinos no net charge. Today, mainstream science recognizes four forces in the universe: Gravity attracts matter to matter, and is thought to be responsible for the formation of stars, planets, and galaxies. But the universe seems to be built from processes , not objects. If FE, antigravity, and related technologies finally come in from the shadows, the elusive Unified Field may come with them, and the Unified Field might well be consciousness, which will help unite the scientist and the mystic, and that field may be divine in nature.

Energy may be best seen as motion Electron shells, how they are filled, and reactivity Helium and the noble gases Electron energy and quantum leaping Temperature How atoms react Elements in the human body Types of electron bonds, including hydrogen bonds This c hapter presents several energy and chemistry concepts essential to this essay.

Even though scientists do not really know what energy is they do not know what light or gravity are , either , energy is perhaps best seen as motion, whether it is a photon flying through space, the "orbit" of an electron around an atom's nucleus or of Earth around the Sun, an object falling to Earth, a river flowing toward the ocean, air moving through Earth's atmosphere, rising and falling tides, and blood moving through a heart.

The classical view of an electron had an electron orbiting the nucleus much in the same way that Earth orbits the Sun, but quantum theory presents a different picture, in which an electron is a wave that only appears to be a particle when it is observed. When one electron shell is filled, electrons begin to fill shells farther from the nucleus. For the simplest atoms it works that way, but for larger atoms, particularly those of metallic elements, electrons fill shells in more complex fashion and electrons begin to fill subshells not necessarily in the shell closest to the nucleus.

When an electron is unpaired or in an unfilled shell, it can be a valence electron, which can form bonds with other atoms. In most circumstances, only unpaired electrons form bonds with other atoms. Electron bonds between atoms provide the basis for chemistry and life on Earth. For that simplest element, hydrogen, its lone electron has an affinity to pair up with another electron, and that smallest shell contains two electrons.

Hydrogen is never found in its monoatomic state in nature, but is bonded to other elements, as that lone electron finds another one to pair with, which also fills that simplest shell. In its pure state in nature, hydrogen is found paired with itself and forms a diatomic molecule. In chemistry notation, it is presented as H 2. Fluorine is so reactive that if it were sprayed on water, the water would burn. The ele ment with two protons in its nucleus is helium the number of protons determines what element the atom is , and its electrons are paired and its shell is filled.

Consequently, helium does not want to share its electrons with anything. Helium is the most non-reactive element known. It has never bonded with any other element, even fluorine. Their electron shells are completely filled. It is not a smooth variation of distance, but only certain distances are possible. When an electron changes its distance, it jumps in a process known as quantum leaping.

That quantum leaping reflects how electrons gain or release energy. When light hits an atom, if it is absorbed by an electron, the photon gives the electron the energy to move to an orbit farther away. When an electron emits light, that lost photon removes energy and the electron falls to a lower orbit.

The potential energy in the electron as it orbits the nucleus and the potential energy in a rock that I hold above the ground are similar, as the diagram below demonstrates. Below is a diagram of a hydrogen atom as its electron orbits farther from the nucleus when it absorbs energy.

As the diagram depicts, the atom gets larger. Lateral movement also called translational motion is called temperature. While finding an accurate definition of temperature can be a frustrating experience, temperature is a measure of the kinetic energy the energy of motion in matter. As with the behavior of photons, at the atomic level the concept of temperature can break down, and classical behaviors emerge as groups of atoms lose their quantum properties.

The transferred energy can be stored by the electrons leaping into higher orbits. They can in turn release that energy in the form of photons and return to lower orbits. The increas ed movement of heated atoms is why substances expand in volume. The more motion, the higher the temperature, and just as an engine will fly apart when the RPMs go too high, when an atom vibrates too fast, an electron can leave the atom entirely and the atom becomes an ion.

As substances become hotter, the electrons will be in higher orbits, and will fall farther when giving off photonic energy, so the photons have more energy shorter wavelengths. Get a substance hot enough and it will emit photons that we can see visible light. Those first visible photons will be on the lower end of the spectrum of light that we can see with our eyes, and will be red.

Get the substance hotter and the light can turn white, which means that we are seeing the full visible spectrum of light. Get matter hot enough and it becomes plasma , as electrons float in a soup with nuclei. Those electrons are too energetic to be captured by nuclei and placed into shells. When tw o atoms come close to each other, if the potential energy of their combined state is less than their potential energy when they are separate, the atoms will tend to react.

But the reaction only happens when the electron shells come into an alignment so that the reaction can happen. If the shells do not meet in the proper alignment and velocity, the reaction will not happen and the atoms will bounce away from each other. The faster and more often the atoms collide, the likelier they are to react and reach that lower energy state. Chemical electron shell reactions need to reach their activation energy to occur, and this is measured in temperature.

The activation energy for hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water is about degrees Celsius o C. The fusion of a helium nucleus releases more than a million times the energy that it takes to ionize a hydrogen atom. As will be discussed later , some reactions have a cumulative result of absorbing energy , while others release it.

The first can be seen as an investment of energy, while the second can be seen as consuming it. Below is a diagram of two hydrogen atoms before and after reaction, as they bond to form H 2. Elements with their electron shells mostly, but not completely, filled are, in order of electronegativity: In that upper right corner of the periodic table , of largely filled electron shells, phosphorus and sulfur also reside.

Carbon and hydrogen have their valence shells half filled. Flu orine forms the smallest negatively charged ions known to science and wrecks organic molecules for reasons discussed later in this essay. Organisms do not use fluorine, except for some plants that use it as a poison.

The classic example of this is the water molecule. In a body of water, oxygen atoms will attract hydrogen atoms of neighboring molecules, and a relatively weak attraction known as a hydrogen bond forms.

Below is a picture of hydrogen bonds in water. Those hydrogen bonds make water the miraculous substance that it is. The unusual surface tension of water is due to hydrogen bonding. Water has a very high boiling point for its molecular weight compare the boiling points of water and carbon dioxide , for instance because of that hydrogen bonding.

Those energy and chemistry concepts should make this essay easier to digest. Timelines of En ergy, Geology, and Early Life. Provides the power for all of Earth's geophysical, geochemical, and ecological systems, with the only exception being radioactivity within Earth. Enzymes accelerate chemical reactions by millions of times, making all but the simplest life pre- LUCA possible. Oxygen is generated, which complex life will later use, which makes non-aquatic life possible and also preserves the global ocean.

Allows for larger cells and far greater energy generation capacity — pound for pound, a complex cell uses energy , times as fast as the Sun creates it. Dramatic climb in atmospheric oxygen , to eventually achieve modern levels, begins.

Largest organisms ever, and greatest energy storage and delivery to any biome, and they become the basis for coal. Among the first terrestrial animals with upright posture, enabling great aerobic capacity and domination of terrestrial environments. Great energy innovation to reduce reproductive costs, and animals are the beneficiaries, as they act as reproductive enzymes in greatest symbiosis of plant and animal life, which allows flowering plants to dominate terrestrial ecosystems.

Allows protohumans to leave trees , become Earth's dominant predator , alter ecosystems , and cooked food helped spur dramatic biological changes, including encephalization in human line. Changes the terms of engagement with prey and reduces hunting risk of large animals and increases effectiveness. Allows for first low-energy transportation, and ability to travel to unpopulated continents. Provides the local and stable energy supply that allowed for sedentary human populations and civilization.

Allows for tools highly improved over stone, for greater energy effectiveness of human activities. Turns global ocean into low-energy transportation lane and allows Europe to conquer the world. First attempt to create "free energy" technology is abandoned due to lack of funding. First man-powered flight , and establishment of first company to mass-produce automobiles. Albert Einstein published his special theory of relativity and equation for converting mass to energy.

Forms the framework for 20 th century physics, including the energy that can be liberated from an atom's nucleus. Oil-rich Ottoman Empire dismembered by industrial powers , establishing imperial and neocolonial rule in Middle East. USA harnesses the atom's power, and first use is vaporizing two cities , and the greatest period of economic prosperity in history begins.

The USA's national security state is born , Roswell incident. This is the final technology, along with free energy technology, to make humanity a universally prosperous and space-faring species. Former astronaut nearly dies immediately after rejecting the American military's UFO research "offer".

The incident is one of many that demonstrate that the UFO issue is very real, but happened to somebody close to me. A close personal friend is shown free energy and antigravity technologies, among others , and another close friend had free energy technology demonstrated. Those incidents are two of many that demonstrate that the free energy suppression issue is very real, but were witnessed by people close to me.

Abbreviated Geologic Time Scale. Earth , Moon , and oceans form. Earth is bombarded with planetesimals. Atmosphere is primarily comprised of carbon dioxide. Too much uncertainty and too little evidence to confidently draw maps, but landmasses existed. Earth cools to habitable temperature. Continents begin forming and growing. Atmosphere is mostly nitrogen, but oxygen begins to increase.

All life is bacterial. Oxygenic photosynthesis first appears. Complex cell eukaryote first appears. Aerobic respiration first appears. Sexual reproduction first appears. Grazing of photosynthetic organisms first appears. Supercontinent Rodinia breaks up. Second Snowball Earth event. Atmosphere oxygenated to near modern levels. Final banded iron formations appear. First land plants may have appeared. Deep ocean is oxygenated. Mass extinction of microscopic eukaryotes. First large animals appear.

First mass diversification of complex life. Most modern phyla appear. Paleo-Tethys Ocean begins forming. Ice age begins and causes mass extinction which ends period. Complex life continues diversifying. First large reefs appear. Mollusks proliferate and diversify. Nautiloids are apex predators. First fossils of land plants recovered from Ordovician sediments. Period ends with first great mass extinction of complex life.

Hot, shallow seas dominate biomes. Climate and sea level changes cause minor extinctions. Reefs recover and expand. Fish begin to develop jaws. First invasions of land by animals. First vascular plants appear. Continents closing to form Pangaea, ice age begins at end of Devonian and cause mass extinction , possibly initiated by first forests sequestering carbon.

First vertebrates invade land. Atmospheric oxygen levels highest ever, likely due to carbon sequestration by coal swamps. Ice age increases in extent, causing collapse of rainforest. First permanent land colonization by vertebrates. Fungus appears that digests lignin. Great mountain-building and volcanism as Pangaea forms, and its formation initiates the greatest mass extinction in eon of complex life.

Synapsid reptiles dominate land. Conifer forests first appear. Pangaea begins to break up. Greenhouse Earth begins and lasts the entire Mesozoic Era. Stony corals appear as reefs slowly recover.

Northern continents split from southern continents. Atlantic Ocean begins to form. Sea levels dramatically rise.

Continents continue to separate. Asteroid impact drives non-bird dinosaurs extinct and ends the Mesozoic Era. Chewing dinosaurs become prominent. Forests near the poles. Rudist bivalves displace coral reefs, but go extinct before the end-Cretaceous extinction. Greenhouse Earth conditions still prevail, and an anomalous warming occurred to end the epoch.

Mammals grow and diversify to fill empty niches left behind by reptiles. Warmest epoch in hundreds of millions of years, but began cooling midway into epoch, beginning Icehouse Earth conditions.

Europe collides with Asia, and Asian mammals displace European mammals. A Golden Age of Life on Earth, when life thrived all the way to the poles. Cooling in Late Eocene drives warm-climate species to extinction.

Early whales die out , replaced by whales adapted to new ocean biomes. First half of epoch is warm, and called The Golden Age of Mammals. Apes appear and spread throughout Africa and Eurasia. Apes migrate back to Africa in cooling, while some remain in Southeast Asia.

Earth continues to cool, and land bridge of North and South America initiates mass extinction of South American mammals and initiates current ice age. First stone tools made at end of epoch. Mammals already cold-adapted, and relatively few extinctions, until the rise of humans. Interglacial period in current ice age, and recent and probably human-caused warming may extend the interglacial period.

Mass extinctions of large animals happen wherever humans begin to appear. By the 21 st century, the Sixth Mass Extinction in the eon of complex life appears to be underway, entirely caused by humans. First major ice age begins snowball Earth event.

Orthodox hypotheses for the beginning of the universe , and formation and composition of the Sun and its planets Sun's influence on Earth, which is primarily an energy influence Earth's composition and early development Earth's geophysical and geochemical processes , and their interactions with life processes In the tables above, some dates have ranges as such old dates often have relatively thin evidence supporting them, which can be interpreted in different ways.

Those dates will be adjusted as the scientific evidence and theories develop. As I was writing this essay, a study was published that may have pushed back the beginning of the Great Oxygenation Event by several hundred million years.

After t he Big Bang , when matter began to coalesce, virtually all mass in the universe was contained in hydrogen atoms, with traces of the next two lightest elements: According to the Standard Model , atoms have no mass by themselves, but the field that gives rise to the Higgs Boson provides the mass.

That fusion released a great deal of primordial Big Bang energy, and fusion powers stars. Nuclei larger than the simplest hydrogen nucleus contain neutrons as well as protons.

As the name implies, neutrons have no net electric charge, but have about the same mass as a proton an electron has less than a thousandth the mass of a proton, so virtually all the mass in atoms is provided by its protons and neutrons.

Radioactive decay into daughter isotopes is mediated by the weak nuclear force. In the smaller stars that eventually become white dwarfs , the primary fusion process creates oxygen as its heaviest element. Several differe nt fusion processes have been identified, and stars from about half the size of the Sun to about nine times larger can undergo a process known as s-process fusion late in their lives, and that process has created about half of the elements heavier than iron; bismuth is the heaviest element created by the process.

Those heavier elements are eventually blown from the star by its stellar wind as it becomes a white dwarf. Stars with more than nine times the mass of the Sun undergo a different process at the end of their lives. That collapse creates the pressures needed to fuse those other atoms heavier than iron, including the heaviest elements. Uranium is the heaviest naturally produced element. In an instant, r-process fusion occurs. When a star becomes a supernova, those heavy elements are sprayed into the galactic neighborhood by a stupendous release of fusion energy.

Over the subsequent eons, gravity will cause the remnants of stars, and hydrogen that had not yet become a star or did not fuse within a star, to coalesce into an accretion disk , and a new star with its attendant planets will form. The Sun will take more than ten billion years to live its life cycle before becoming a white dwarf. Large stars burn much more quickly and can become supernovas after as little as ten million years of main-sequence burning.

The accretion disk from which the Sun and its planets were formed appeared in a relatively short time, and the disk was originally a molecular cloud that may have been disturbed by an exploding star. A "local" exploding star likely provided the bulk of our solar system's matter, and the entire mess gravitationally collapsed into the disk. In a mere 50 million years after formation, the Sun became compressed enough to initiate the sustained fusion that still powers it and will for several billion more years.

Those that began their lives inside the frost line were rocky, and those outside the frost line were generally comprised of lighter elements. Those planetesimals bombarded the forming planets and increased their mass.

Other planetesimals were ejected from the solar system as the gravity of the Sun and planets whipped them around. Venus and Mars were also bombarded with the lighter elements and may have plentiful water long ago, but only Earth retained its water. The biggest colli sion between Earth and its neighbors may well have created the Moon , and although the currently prevailing hypothesis has plenty of problems, the other hypotheses have more.

At this time, dark energy and dark matter have never been observed. Any theory that relies on unobserved phenomena is going to be highly provisional, and I consider it unlikely that the prevailing cosmological theories a century from now will much resemble those of today.

The scale of the universe, from its largest to smallest objects, is truly difficult to imagine, and this animation can help provide some perspective. The scale of geologic time strains human brains with its immensity. The journey of life on Earth has been greatly affected by geophysical and geochemical processes as well as influences from beyond Earth, such as:. It seems to me, however, that geophysical and geochemical processes are understood better and have more robust data than many other areas of science, so geophysics and geochemistry are areas where I expect fewer radical changes than others.

Maybe that is because it is neither too big nor too small and closer to our daily reality than distant stars or what is happening inside atoms. Tectonic plate movements can alter the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean. Tectonic plates can collide, such as the collision of India into Asia , which formed the Himalayan Mountains and raised the Tibetan Plateau. That may have contributed to the ice age that we currently experience, although other studies indicate that the carbon removal may have been more due to the burial of organic matter.

The debate is continuing as the complex dynamics are subjected to scientific investigation. It is already nearly PPM and rising fast. Ultrav iolet light breaks water vapor into hydrogen and oxygen. Scientists believe that that happened to Venus and Mars, although Venus may have never cooled enough to form liquid water; it split in the atmosphere and hydrogen then escaped to space.

On Earth, that hydrogen liberated by ultraviolet light reacts with atmospheric oxygen and turns back into water before it can escape into space. Photosynthesis led to atmospheric oxygen, which led to the ozone layer that helped prevent the splitting of water, and atmospheric oxygen recaptured hydrogen that would have otherwise escaped to space, which prevented the oceans from disappearing, which probably led to plate tectonics, which led to the formation of granitic continents , which led to land-based life.

In short, life made Earth more conducive to life. That is the most important impact of life on geophysical and geochemical processes, but far from the only one; others will be explored in this essay. Geology in the West is considered to have begun during the Classic Greek period , and Persian and Chinese scholars furthered the discipline during the medieval period.

There is a constant upwelling of mass from the mantle, riding those energy currents. Three bya, the continents may have only had about a quarter of the mass that they do today. The granites formed when basalt was exposed to water , and the process partly replaced heavier iron with lighter sodium and potassium.

Water also became incorporated into the rocks, generally where the heavier oceanic crust was subducted below the lighter continental crust. Those tectonic plates have been likened to the surface of a pot of boiling oatmeal. Plates can collide and form mountains, and they can pull apart and expose the hot interior, which spews out in volcanism at the edges of tectonic plates , including ridges in the oceans.

The mantle is thought to be mostly oxygen and silicon, and the remainder is largely composed of the lighter alkali and alkaline earth metals, such as sodium, potassium, and calcium.

Those mantle metals are primarily bound in oxides. The crust also is almost solely comprised of oxides. Land-based biomass is about times greater than ocean-based biomass.

Life as we know it seems to be rare and delicate, found nowhere else in our solar system so far, and few places seem promising for it to exist. Earth rec eives less than one-billionth of the energy that the Sun produces.

That infinitesimal proportion captured by photosynthesis is the basis for nearly all life on Earth. Planets with weak magnetic fields, such as Mars, are believed to be vulnerable to the solar wind stripping away their atmospheres. If Earth did not have a magnetic field, its ozone layer may have been stripped away , which may have led to the extinction of complex life on Earth, if it would have ever appeared at all.

The fact that complex life exists on Earth seems to be a miracle of circumstance. A naked human would not have survived for a minute on the Hadean Earth. The Moon was probably created during the Hadean Eon when a planet-sized mass collided with Earth. Appearance of life on Earth , and its energetic basis Role of DNA , enzymes , ATP , and membranes Basic aspects of life Biochemistry , geochemical cycles , and entropy Respiration and photosynthesis Split of bacteria and archaea Oxygenic photosynthesis Formation of the continents, plate tectonics Great Oxygenation Event , and formation of the iron deposits , the first ice age , and formation of the ozone layer Development of the complex cell and its energy centers - the mitochondria - and mitochondrial DNA Development of aerobic respiration Free radicals and cell death Formation of supercontinents Evolutionary struggles , the appearance of plants , sexual reproduction , grazing , and predation One-way path of evolution Above a ll else, life is an energy acquisition process.

All life exploits the potential energy in various atomic and molecular arrangements, or captures energy directly, as in photosynthesis. Early life ex ploited the potential energy of chemicals.

The chemosynthetic ideal is capturing chemicals fresh to new environments that have yet to react with other chemicals. The currently most-accepted hypothesis has life first appearing on Earth about 3. Life had to be opportunistic and quick in order to capture that energy before other molecules did. When life first appeared on Earth, the evolutionary process that led to humanity began. The USA's population has more doubt about evolution than any other Western nation , and that is primarily because Biblical literalism is still strong here.

In all other Western nations, there is virtually no controversy over evolution being a fact of existence, and those nations view the controversy over evolution in the USA with befuddlement. Many molecules with the same atomic structure can form mirror images of themselves. That mirror-image phenomenon is called chirality.

In nature, such mirror images occur randomly, but life prefers one mirror image over the other. In all life on Earth, proteins are virtually without exception left-handed, while sugars are right-handed. All other lineages died out the likely answer, and there was probably hundreds of millions of years of evolution on Earth before LUCA lived , or they may have all descended from the same original organism.