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Paleolithic
Limits intake of saturated fats. The processing of food in the stomach was seen as a continuation of the preparation initiated by the cook. Runners-Up While these may not be the best of the best proven diets for sleep apnea today, they might be tomorrow. Paleolithic hunting and gathering people ate varying proportions of vegetables including tubers and roots , fruit, seeds including nuts and wild grass seeds and insects, meat, fish, and shellfish. Many raw foods are more nutritional in their uncooked state.

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Medieval cuisine

For the duration of the Paleolithic, human populations remained low, especially outside the equatorial region. Paleolithic humans made tools of stone, bone, and wood. Excavations in Gona, Ethiopia have produced thousands of artifacts, and through radioisotopic dating and magnetostratigraphy , the sites can be firmly dated to 2. Evidence shows these early hominins intentionally selected raw materials with good flaking qualities and chose appropriate sized stones for their needs to produce sharp-edged tools for cutting.

The earliest Paleolithic stone tool industry, the Oldowan , began around 2. It was completely replaced around , years ago by the more complex Acheulean industry, which was first conceived by Homo ergaster around 1. Lower Paleolithic humans used a variety of stone tools, including hand axes and choppers.

Although they appear to have used hand axes often, there is disagreement about their use. Interpretations range from cutting and chopping tools, to digging implements, to flaking cores, to the use in traps, and as a purely ritual significance, perhaps in courting behavior. Calvin has suggested that some hand axes could have served as "killer Frisbees " meant to be thrown at a herd of animals at a waterhole so as to stun one of them.

There are no indications of hafting , and some artifacts are far too large for that. Thus, a thrown hand axe would not usually have penetrated deeply enough to cause very serious injuries. Nevertheless, it could have been an effective weapon for defense against predators.

Choppers and scrapers were likely used for skinning and butchering scavenged animals and sharp-ended sticks were often obtained for digging up edible roots. Fire was used by the Lower Paleolithic hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster as early as , to 1. The Lower Paleolithic Homo erectus possibly invented rafts c. However, this hypothesis is disputed within the anthropological community. In addition to improving tool making methods, the Middle Paleolithic also saw an improvement of the tools themselves that allowed access to a wider variety and amount of food sources.

Harpoons were invented and used for the first time during the late Middle Paleolithic c. During the Upper Paleolithic , further inventions were made, such as the net c. Archaeological evidence from the Dordogne region of France demonstrates that members of the European early Upper Paleolithic culture known as the Aurignacian used calendars c. This was a lunar calendar that was used to document the phases of the moon.

Genuine solar calendars did not appear until the Neolithic. The social organization of the earliest Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic societies remains largely unknown to scientists, though Lower Paleolithic hominins such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus are likely to have had more complex social structures than chimpanzee societies. Similarly, scientists disagree whether Lower Paleolithic humans were largely monogamous or polygynous. Human societies from the Paleolithic to the early Neolithic farming tribes lived without states and organized governments.

For most of the Lower Paleolithic, human societies were possibly more hierarchical than their Middle and Upper Paleolithic descendants, and probably were not grouped into bands , [50] though during the end of the Lower Paleolithic, the latest populations of the hominin Homo erectus may have begun living in small-scale possibly egalitarian bands similar to both Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies and modern hunter-gatherers.

Middle Paleolithic societies, unlike Lower Paleolithic and early Neolithic ones, consisted of bands that ranged from 20—30 or 25— members and were usually nomadic. Bands sometimes joined together into larger "macrobands" for activities such as acquiring mates and celebrations or where resources were abundant. Much evidence exists that humans took part in long-distance trade between bands for rare commodities such as ochre , which was often used for religious purposes such as ritual [51] [52] and raw materials, as early as , years ago in Middle Paleolithic.

Some sources claim that most Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies were possibly fundamentally egalitarian [3] [22] [38] [53] and may have rarely or never engaged in organized violence between groups i. Like contemporary egalitarian hunter-gatherers such as the Mbuti pygmies, societies may have made decisions by communal consensus decision making rather than by appointing permanent rulers such as chiefs and monarchs.

Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities. Theories to explain the apparent egalitarianism have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism.

Kelly speculates that the relative peacefulness of Middle and Upper Paleolithic societies resulted from a low population density, cooperative relationships between groups such as reciprocal exchange of commodities and collaboration on hunting expeditions, and because the invention of projectile weapons such as throwing spears provided less incentive for war, because they increased the damage done to the attacker and decreased the relative amount of territory attackers could gain.

Anthropologists have typically assumed that in Paleolithic societies, women were responsible for gathering wild plants and firewood, and men were responsible for hunting and scavenging dead animals.

Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals such as woolly mammoths and deer off cliffs. Early examples of artistic expression, such as the Venus of Tan-Tan and the patterns found on elephant bones from Bilzingsleben in Thuringia , may have been produced by Acheulean tool users such as Homo erectus prior to the start of the Middle Paleolithic period.

Lower Paleolithic Acheulean tool users, according to Robert G. They decorated themselves with beads and collected exotic stones for aesthetic, rather than utilitarian qualities. Fallio interprets Lower and Middle Paleolithic marking on rocks at sites such as Bilzingsleben such as zigzagging lines as accounts or representations of altered states of consciousness [73] though some other scholars interpret them as either simple doodling or as the result of natural processes.

Upper Paleolithic humans produced works of art such as cave paintings, Venus figurines, animal carvings, and rock paintings. The earliest explanation, by the prehistorian Abbe Breuil , interpreted the paintings as a form of magic designed to ensure a successful hunt.

The anthropologist David Lewis-Williams has suggested that Paleolithic cave paintings were indications of shamanistic practices, because the paintings of half-human, half-animal paintings and the remoteness of the caves are reminiscent of modern hunter-gatherer shamanistic practices. Archaeologists and anthropologists have described the figurines as representations of goddesses , pornographic imagery, apotropaic amulets used for sympathetic magic, and even as self-portraits of women themselves.

Dale Guthrie [78] has studied not only the most artistic and publicized paintings, but also a variety of lower-quality art and figurines, and he identifies a wide range of skill and ages among the artists. He also points out that the main themes in the paintings and other artifacts powerful beasts, risky hunting scenes and the over-sexual representation of women are to be expected in the fantasies of adolescent males during the Upper Paleolithic.

The "Venus" figurines have been theorized, not universally, as representing a mother goddess ; the abundance of such female imagery has inspired the theory that Paleolithic and later Neolithic societies centered their religion and societies around women. Dale Gutrie's hypothesis that served as "stone age pornography ".

The origins of music during the Paleolithic are unknown. This early music would not have left an archaeological footprint. Music may have developed from rhythmic sounds produced by daily chores, for example, cracking open nuts with stones. Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities. Bird and other animal species produce music such as calls to attract mates. Another explanation is that humans began to make music simply because it pleased them.

Upper Paleolithic and possibly Middle Paleolithic [83] humans used flute -like bone pipes as musical instruments, [38] [84] and music may have played a large role in the religious lives of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. As with modern hunter-gatherer societies, music may have been used in ritual or to help induce trances. In particular, it appears that animal skin drums may have been used in religious events by Upper Paleolithic shamans, as shown by the remains of drum-like instruments from some Upper Paleolithic graves of shamans and the ethnographic record of contemporary hunter-gatherer shamanic and ritual practices.

According to James B. Harrod humankind first developed religious and spiritual beliefs during the Middle Paleolithic or Upper Paleolithic. Fallio, have recently proposed that religion and spirituality and art may have first arisen in Pre-Paleolithic chimpanzees [86] or Early Lower Paleolithic Oldowan societies. Middle Paleolithic humans' use of burials at sites such as Krapina , Croatia c. According to recent archaeological findings from Homo heidelbergensis sites in Atapuerca , humans may have begun burying their dead much earlier, during the late Lower Paleolithic ; but this theory is widely questioned in the scientific community.

Likewise, some scientists have proposed that Middle Paleolithic societies such as Neanderthal societies may also have practiced the earliest form of totemism or animal worship , in addition to their presumably religious burial of the dead.

In particular, Emil Bächler suggested based on archaeological evidence from Middle Paleolithic caves that a bear cult was widespread among Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals. The existence of anthropomorphic images and half-human, half-animal images in the Upper Paleolithic may further indicate that Upper Paleolithic humans were the first people to believe in a pantheon of gods or supernatural beings , [91] though such images may instead indicate shamanistic practices similar to those of contemporary tribal societies.

Fallio writes that ancestor cults first emerged in complex Upper Paleolithic societies. He argues that the elites of these societies like the elites of many more contemporary complex hunter-gatherers such as the Tlingit may have used special rituals and ancestor worship to solidify control over their societies, by convincing their subjects that they possess a link to the spirit world that also gives them control over the earthly realm.

Religion was possibly apotropaic ; specifically, it may have involved sympathetic magic. Paleolithic hunting and gathering people ate varying proportions of vegetables including tubers and roots , fruit, seeds including nuts and wild grass seeds and insects, meat, fish, and shellfish.

The Paleolithic was an extended period of time, during which multiple technological advances were made, many of which had impact on human dietary structure. For example, humans probably did not possess the control of fire until the Middle Paleolithic, [99] or tools necessary to engage in extensive fishing.

In addition, the Paleolithic involved a substantial geographical expansion of human populations. During the Lower Paleolithic, ancestors of modern humans are thought to have been constrained to Africa east of the Great Rift Valley. During the Middle and Upper Paleolithic, humans greatly expanded their area of settlement, reaching ecosystems as diverse as New Guinea and Alaska , and adapting their diets to whatever local resources were available.

Another view is that until the Upper Paleolithic, humans were frugivores fruit eaters who supplemented their meals with carrion, eggs, and small prey such as baby birds and mussels , and only on rare occasions managed to kill and consume big game such as antelopes. Anthropologists have diverse opinions about the proportions of plant and animal foods consumed. The cuisines of the cultures of the Mediterranean Basin had since antiquity been based on cereals, particularly various types of wheat.

Porridge, gruel and later, bread, became the basic food staple that made up the majority of calorie intake for most of the population. In colder climates, however, it was usually unaffordable for the majority population, and was associated with the higher classes. The centrality of bread in religious rituals such as the Eucharist meant that it enjoyed an especially high prestige among foodstuffs.

Only olive oil and wine had a comparable value, but both remained quite exclusive outside the warmer grape- and olive-growing regions. The symbolic role of bread as both sustenance and substance is illustrated in a sermon given by Saint Augustine:. This bread retells your history … You were brought to the threshing floor of the Lord and were threshed … While awaiting catechism , you were like grain kept in the granary … At the baptismal font you were kneaded into a single dough.

In the oven of the Holy Ghost you were baked into God's true bread. The Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox Churches and their calendars had great influence on eating habits; consumption of meat was forbidden for a full third of the year for most Christians.

All animal products, including eggs and dairy products but not fish , were generally prohibited during Lent and fast. Additionally, it was customary for all citizens to fast prior to taking the Eucharist.

These fasts were occasionally for a full day and required total abstinence. Both the Eastern and the Western churches ordained that feast should alternate with fast. In most of Europe, Fridays were fast days, and fasting was observed on various other days and periods, including Lent and Advent.

Meat, and animal products such as milk, cheese, butter and eggs, were not allowed, only fish. The fast was intended to mortify the body and invigorate the soul, and also to remind the faster of Christ 's sacrifice for humanity. The intention was not to portray certain foods as unclean, but rather to teach a spiritual lesson in self-restraint through abstention.

During particularly severe fast days, the number of daily meals was also reduced to one. Even if most people respected these restrictions and usually made penance when they violated them, there were also numerous ways of circumventing them, a conflict of ideals and practice summarized by writer Bridget Ann Henisch:. It is the nature of man to build the most complicated cage of rules and regulations in which to trap himself, and then, with equal ingenuity and zest, to bend his brain to the problem of wriggling triumphantly out again.

Lent was a challenge; the game was to ferret out the loopholes. While animal products were to be avoided during times of penance, pragmatic compromises often prevailed. The definition of "fish" was often extended to marine and semi-aquatic animals such as whales , barnacle geese , puffins and even beavers.

The choice of ingredients may have been limited, but that did not mean that meals were smaller. Neither were there any restrictions against moderate drinking or eating sweets. Banquets held on fish days could be splendid, and were popular occasions for serving illusion food that imitated meat, cheese and eggs in various ingenious ways; fish could be moulded to look like venison and fake eggs could be made by stuffing empty egg shells with fish roe and almond milk and cooking them in coals.

While Byzantine church officials took a hard-line approach, and discouraged any culinary refinement for the clergy, their Western counterparts were far more lenient. During Lent, kings and schoolboys, commoners and nobility, all complained about being deprived of meat for the long, hard weeks of solemn contemplation of their sins. At Lent, owners of livestock were even warned to keep an eye out for hungry dogs frustrated by a "hard siege by Lent and fish bones".

The trend from the 13th century onward was toward a more legalistic interpretation of fasting. Nobles were careful not to eat meat on fast days, but still dined in style; fish replaced meat, often as imitation hams and bacon; almond milk replaced animal milk as an expensive non-dairy alternative; faux eggs made from almond milk were cooked in blown-out eggshells, flavoured and coloured with exclusive spices. In some cases the lavishness of noble tables was outdone by Benedictine monasteries, which served as many as sixteen courses during certain feast days.

Exceptions from fasting were frequently made for very broadly defined groups. Since the sick were exempt from fasting, there often evolved the notion that fasting restrictions only applied to the main dining area, and many Benedictine friars would simply eat their fast day meals in what was called the misericord at those times rather than the refectory.

Medieval society was highly stratified. In a time when famine was commonplace and social hierarchies were often brutally enforced, food was an important marker of social status in a way that has no equivalent today in most developed countries. According to the ideological norm, society consisted of the three estates of the realm: The relationship between the classes was strictly hierarchical, with the nobility and clergy claiming worldly and spiritual overlordship over commoners.

Within the nobility and clergy there were also a number of ranks ranging from kings and popes to dukes , bishops and their subordinates, such as priests. One was expected to remain in one's social class and to respect the authority of the ruling classes. Political power was displayed not just by rule, but also by displaying wealth. Nobles dined on fresh game seasoned with exotic spices, and displayed refined table manners; rough laborers could make do with coarse barley bread, salt pork and beans and were not expected to display etiquette.

Even dietary recommendations were different: The digestive system of a lord was held to be more discriminating than that of his rustic subordinates and demanded finer foods. In the late Middle Ages, the increasing wealth of middle class merchants and traders meant that commoners began emulating the aristocracy, and threatened to break down some of the symbolic barriers between the nobility and the lower classes. The response came in two forms: Medical science of the Middle Ages had a considerable influence on what was considered healthy and nutritious among the upper classes.

One's lifestyle—including diet, exercise, appropriate social behavior, and approved medical remedies—was the way to good health, and all types of food were assigned certain properties that affected a person's health.

All foodstuffs were also classified on scales ranging from hot to cold and moist to dry, according to the four bodily humours theory proposed by Galen that dominated Western medical science from late Antiquity until the 17th century. Medieval scholars considered human digestion to be a process similar to cooking. The processing of food in the stomach was seen as a continuation of the preparation initiated by the cook. In order for the food to be properly "cooked" and for the nutrients to be properly absorbed, it was important that the stomach be filled in an appropriate manner.

Easily digestible foods would be consumed first, followed by gradually heavier dishes. If this regimen were not respected it was believed that heavy foods would sink to the bottom of the stomach, thus blocking the digestion duct, so that food would digest very slowly and cause putrefaction of the body and draw bad humours into the stomach. It was also of vital importance that food of differing properties not be mixed.

Before a meal, the stomach would preferably be "opened" with an apéritif from Latin aperire , "to open" that was preferably of a hot and dry nature: As the stomach had been opened, it should then be "closed" at the end of the meal with the help of a digestive, most commonly a dragée , which during the Middle Ages consisted of lumps of spiced sugar, or hypocras , a wine flavoured with fragrant spices, along with aged cheese.

A meal would ideally begin with easily digestible fruit, such as apples. It would then be followed by vegetables such as lettuce , cabbage , purslane , herbs, moist fruits, light meats, such as chicken or goat kid , with potages and broths. After that came the "heavy" meats, such as pork and beef , as well as vegetables and nuts, including pears and chestnuts, both considered difficult to digest.

It was popular, and recommended by medical expertise, to finish the meal with aged cheese and various digestives. The most ideal food was that which most closely matched the humour of human beings, i. Food should preferably also be finely chopped, ground, pounded and strained to achieve a true mixture of all the ingredients.

White wine was believed to be cooler than red and the same distinction was applied to red and white vinegar. Milk was moderately warm and moist, but the milk of different animals was often believed to differ.

Egg yolks were considered to be warm and moist while the whites were cold and moist. Skilled cooks were expected to conform to the regimen of humoral medicine. Even if this limited the combinations of food they could prepare, there was still ample room for artistic variation by the chef. The caloric content and structure of medieval diet varied over time, from region to region, and between classes. However, for most people, the diet tended to be high-carbohydrate, with most of the budget spent on, and the majority of calories provided by, cereals and alcohol such as beer.

Even though meat was highly valued by all, lower classes often could not afford it, nor were they allowed by the church to consume it every day. In one early 15th-century English aristocratic household for which detailed records are available that of the Earl of Warwick , gentle members of the household received a staggering 3. In the household of Henry Stafford in , gentle members received 2. In monasteries, the basic structure of the diet was laid down by the Rule of Saint Benedict in the 7th century and tightened by Pope Benedict XII in , but as mentioned above monks were adept at "working around" these rules.

This was circumvented in part by declaring that offal , and various processed foods such as bacon , were not meat. Secondly, Benedictine monasteries contained a room called the misericord , where the Rule of Saint Benedict did not apply, and where a large number of monks ate.

Each monk would be regularly sent either to the misericord or to the refectory. When Pope Benedict XII ruled that at least half of all monks should be required to eat in the refectory on any given day, monks responded by excluding the sick and those invited to the abbot's table from the reckoning. The overall caloric intake is subject to some debate. As a consequence of these excesses, obesity was common among upper classes. The regional specialties that are a feature of early modern and contemporary cuisine were not in evidence in the sparser documentation that survives.

Instead, medieval cuisine can be differentiated by the cereals and the oils that shaped dietary norms and crossed ethnic and, later, national boundaries. Geographical variation in eating was primarily the result of differences in climate, political administration, and local customs that varied across the continent. Though sweeping generalizations should be avoided, more or less distinct areas where certain foodstuffs dominated can be discerned.

In the British Isles , northern France , the Low Countries , the northern German-speaking areas, Scandinavia and the Baltic , the climate was generally too harsh for the cultivation of grapes and olives.

In the south, wine was the common drink for both rich and poor alike though the commoner usually had to settle for cheap second pressing wine while beer was the commoner's drink in the north and wine an expensive import. Citrus fruits though not the kinds most common today and pomegranates were common around the Mediterranean. Dried figs and dates were available in the north, but were used rather sparingly in cooking.

Olive oil was a ubiquitous ingredient in Mediterranean cultures, but remained an expensive import in the north where oils of poppy , walnut, hazel and filbert were the most affordable alternatives. Butter and lard , especially after the terrible mortality during the Black Death made them less scarce, were used in considerable quantities in the northern and northwestern regions, especially in the Low Countries.

Almost universal in middle and upper class cooking all over Europe was the almond , which was in the ubiquitous and highly versatile almond milk , which was used as a substitute in dishes that otherwise required eggs or milk, though the bitter variety of almonds came along much later.

In Europe there were typically two meals a day: The two-meal system remained consistent throughout the late Middle Ages. Smaller intermediate meals were common, but became a matter of social status, as those who did not have to perform manual labor could go without them.

For practical reasons, breakfast was still eaten by working men, and was tolerated for young children, women, the elderly and the sick. Because the church preached against gluttony and other weaknesses of the flesh, men tended to be ashamed of the weak practicality of breakfast.

Lavish dinner banquets and late-night reresopers from Occitan rèire-sopar , "late supper" with considerable amounts of alcoholic beverage were considered immoral. The latter were especially associated with gambling, crude language, drunkenness, and lewd behavior. As with almost every part of life at the time, a medieval meal was generally a communal affair.

The entire household, including servants, would ideally dine together. To sneak off to enjoy private company was considered a haughty and inefficient egotism in a world where people depended very much on each other. When possible, rich hosts retired with their consorts to private chambers where the meal could be enjoyed in greater exclusivity and privacy.

Being invited to a lord's chambers was a great privilege and could be used as a way to reward friends and allies and to awe subordinates. It allowed lords to distance themselves further from the household and to enjoy more luxurious treats while serving inferior food to the rest of the household that still dined in the great hall. At major occasions and banquets, however, the host and hostess generally dined in the great hall with the other diners.

However, it can be assumed there were no such extravagant luxuries as multiple courses , luxurious spices or hand-washing in scented water in everyday meals. Things were different for the wealthy. Before the meal and between courses, shallow basins and linen towels were offered to guests so they could wash their hands, as cleanliness was emphasized. Social codes made it difficult for women to uphold the ideal of immaculate neatness and delicacy while enjoying a meal, so the wife of the host often dined in private with her entourage or ate very little at such feasts.

She could then join dinner only after the potentially messy business of eating was done. Overall, fine dining was a predominantly male affair, and it was uncommon for anyone but the most honored of guests to bring his wife or her ladies-in-waiting.

The hierarchical nature of society was reinforced by etiquette where the lower ranked were expected to help the higher, the younger to assist the elder, and men to spare women the risk of sullying dress and reputation by having to handle food in an unwomanly fashion. Shared drinking cups were common even at lavish banquets for all but those who sat at the high table , as was the standard etiquette of breaking bread and carving meat for one's fellow diners.

Food was mostly served on plates or in stew pots, and diners would take their share from the dishes and place it on trenchers of stale bread, wood or pewter with the help of spoons or bare hands. In lower-class households it was common to eat food straight off the table.

Knives were used at the table, but most people were expected to bring their own, and only highly favored guests would be given a personal knife.

A knife was usually shared with at least one other dinner guest, unless one was of very high rank or well-acquainted with the host. Forks for eating were not in widespread usage in Europe until the early modern period , and early on were limited to Italy. Even there it was not until the 14th century that the fork became common among Italians of all social classes. The change in attitudes can be illustrated by the reactions to the table manners of the Byzantine princess Theodora Doukaina in the late 11th century.

She was the wife of Domenico Selvo , the Doge of Venice , and caused considerable dismay among upstanding Venetians. The foreign consort's insistence on having her food cut up by her eunuch servants and then eating the pieces with a golden fork shocked and upset the diners so much that there was a claim that Peter Damian , Cardinal Bishop of Ostia , later interpreted her refined foreign manners as pride and referred to her as " All types of cooking involved the direct use of fire.

Kitchen stoves did not appear until the 18th century, and cooks had to know how to cook directly over an open fire. Ovens were used, but they were expensive to construct and only existed in fairly large households and bakeries. It was common for a community to have shared ownership of an oven to ensure that the bread baking essential to everyone was made communal rather than private.

There were also portable ovens designed to be filled with food and then buried in hot coals, and even larger ones on wheels that were used to sell pies in the streets of medieval towns. But for most people, almost all cooking was done in simple stewpots, since this was the most efficient use of firewood and did not waste precious cooking juices, making potages and stews the most common dishes.

This was considered less of a problem in a time of back-breaking toil, famine, and a greater acceptance—even desirability—of plumpness; only the poor or sick, and devout ascetics , were thin.

Fruit was readily combined with meat, fish and eggs. The recipe for Tart de brymlent , a fish pie from the recipe collection Forme of Cury , includes a mix of figs , raisins , apples and pears with fish salmon , codling or haddock and pitted damson plums under the top crust. This meant that food had to be "tempered" according to its nature by an appropriate combination of preparation and mixing certain ingredients, condiments and spices; fish was seen as being cold and moist, and best cooked in a way that heated and dried it, such as frying or oven baking, and seasoned with hot and dry spices; beef was dry and hot and should therefore be boiled ; pork was hot and moist and should therefore always be roasted.

In a recipe for quince pie, cabbage is said to work equally well, and in another turnips could be replaced by pears. The completely edible shortcrust pie did not appear in recipes until the 15th century.

Before that the pastry was primarily used as a cooking container in a technique known as ' huff paste '. Extant recipe collections show that gastronomy in the Late Middle Ages developed significantly. New techniques, like the shortcrust pie and the clarification of jelly with egg whites began to appear in recipes in the late 14th century and recipes began to include detailed instructions instead of being mere memory aids to an already skilled cook.

In most households, cooking was done on an open hearth in the middle of the main living area, to make efficient use of the heat. This was the most common arrangement, even in wealthy households, for most of the Middle Ages, where the kitchen was combined with the dining hall. Towards the Late Middle Ages a separate kitchen area began to evolve.

The first step was to move the fireplaces towards the walls of the main hall, and later to build a separate building or wing that contained a dedicated kitchen area, often separated from the main building by a covered arcade. This way, the smoke, odors and bustle of the kitchen could be kept out of sight of guests, and the fire risk lessened. Many basic variations of cooking utensils available today, such as frying pans , pots , kettles , and waffle irons , already existed, although they were often too expensive for poorer households.

Other tools more specific to cooking over an open fire were spits of various sizes, and material for skewering anything from delicate quails to whole oxen. Designed by a world-renowned cardiologist you know this is one plan that not only helps with weight loss but is heart healthy as well. This is especially helpful for those with high blood pressure due to sleep apnea.

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Over 1, participants were examined both in the lab and at home. Over time it was determined that higher intake of fat in the diet was positively associated with both the severity of sleep apnea and daytime sleepiness. Choose one of the helpful tools below to keep you on the right track with your low-fat diet. The NutriSystem program allows you to simplify your weight loss. This plan is incredibly easy to follow and perfect for those who want to shed a few pounds quickly.

Nutrisystem might be the best way to lose the weight you need to keep your sleep apnea at bay. Six daily, smaller, balanced meals are designed to keep you feeling full longer so you can fight off hunger while reaching your weight loss goals.

Anyone starting out on their weight loss journey can benefit from Healthy Cooking for Two. There are both cooking tips and dieting tips that keep you encouraged. Every low-fat recipe is designed to create smaller portions. Although this book has a great recipe list for beginners, it could be taken to the next level with more pictures to entice the reader into choosing something healthy. Is a great app for helping you make smarter choices.

Set your goal with this interactive app and track both exercise and diet. Keeping track of what you put in your mouth has never been so easy. Use the food database to look up an item, scan the barcode of an item, or even take a picture of your food to get accurate info.

If you plan to maintain a healthy low-fat diet and want to do any cooking at home, a George Foreman grill might be your best bet for lean meals. High saturated fat and sleep apnea have a direct correlation.

Even a novice can make the most out of this grill. Choose a version, that has a smaller cooking surface such as this one, to encourage portion control. Some extreme dieters will even eat raw meat, but this is definitely not recommended because of health risks.

One major theory behind the raw food diet is that essential nutrients are destroyed in the processing procedures. The diet also teaches that processing alters the chemical structure of food which can negatively affect your health. This diet is based on many of the same principals as the Paleolithic diet and the two diets are often used in a combination form. Both diets are heavily focused on using fruits, vegetables, and herbs that have anti-inflammatory properties.

This diet encourages the eating of fresh, organic fruits and vegetables; raw cheeses and milk; plain yogurt; fermented vegetables; raw honey; and raw nuts. Focusing on a diet that is based on reducing inflammation such as a raw food diet, can be incredibly beneficial for people with sleep apnea. In fact, one case study showed a year-old man who had suffered from OSA his whole life proved just that. After only 3 months of dietary management, the patient no longer required a CPAP machine. He reported sleeping 6 hours without interruption during the night.

Based on this clinical case study, it was found that dietary modifications such as incorporating anti-inflammatory foods are an effective tool to improve OSA. You may want to consider this natural method to manage your obstructive sleep apnea with diet before choosing a more evasive approach. Our team has compiled a list of diet products that will aid you on your raw food journey to curing your sleep apnea for good. Choose one of these items to help give you the boost you need to stay on track throughout the course of your diet:.

Laura-Jane has been creating and perfecting satisfying raw recipes to match your busy lifestyle since Most recipes on the Rawtarian menu can be ready to go in less than 15 minutes. Use the videos, recipes, course material and ebooks for tips and tricks on how to make the most out of your raw diet. Monthly challenges and private forums keep you interactive on the site and provide both accountability and support.

A shopping list and meal plan are also provided. This diet focuses on anti-inflammatory ingredients that help with digestion. Keep in mind though, some ingredients may be seasonal or difficult to find in your area. This lovely cookbook is jam-packed with useful info on how to maintain a healthy plant-based life. Gorgeous pictures accompany just about every recipe and inspire you to create your own version.

Included in The Fully Raw Diet are raw food recipes for soups, dips, meals, and desserts. Use the Rawtarian Meal Plan App as your daily guide. Choose one of 6 weekly or monthly meal plans and off you go. The app provides a weekly shopping list with checklist , and simple to prepare meals. All recipes include zoomable photos and allow for comments.

Hopefully, down the line, this will be a feature they add. A fruit and veggie juicer like this one from Nutri Stahl will play a major role in your raw food diet. Having a decent one will be an amazing help as well as a time saver.

Many raw food recipe books call for both a juicer when making soups, sauces, and well, juice. Choosing a high-end appliance will keep you on track with your goals and financially vested. This Juicer allows you to have commercial quality from your own kitchen.

It juices fruits and vegetables in a flash and is super easy to clean. One drawback to this juicer is it tends to be a little louder than some others on the market.

If you have a little one in the house, you may want to opt for another brand. The basis of a vegetarian or vegan diet is that it greatly limits the eating of any meat product and is considered to be a good way to lose weight. Meat products tend to be high in calories, and that sets up a scenario for gaining weight.

For a vegetarian, meat products include pork, beef, fish and chicken. While eating no meat is a basic vegetarian practice, there are three major styles of the vegetarian diet:. Lacto-ovo vegetarian dieters eat eggs and dairy products. Lacto vegetarian dieters eat dairy products; and. Ovo vegetarian dieters eat eggs. This diet allows you to eat unlimited amounts of carbohydrates, fruits, and vegetables and depending on your diet style, you may also eat eggs, dairy products, or both.

On the other hand, a vegan diet is much more severe in that it prohibits eating any form of animal products. Well-balanced vegetarian diets are also advantageous because they provide the dieter with more complex carbohydrates , dietary fiber, vitamins C and E along with many other necessary nutrients. A plant-based diet can be a great way to lose weight with the proper motivation. Pick and choose what items will help keep you a happy, healthy veg-head!

Created by Neal Barnard M. You will receive a Day Vegan KickStart meal plan, lots of tips and recipes to keep you on track and a community forum to keep you accountable to your goals.

The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine has many additional resources that can help you learn to start a plant-based lifestyle. Although a plant-based lifestyle can be extremely beneficial to your health, especially when trying to lose weight, it may be lacking in some vital nutrients your body needs. You might want to consider taking vitamins and supplements when you start a vegan diet. The Vegetarian Weight Loss Lifestyle Collection guides you through the ins and outs of healthy nutrition.

This book is packed with recipes that have obviously be tested and perfected. This book is a great addition for anyone that wants to lose weight, whether you are already vegetarian or not. Forks Over Knives teaches you that the right foods can be the right medicine for whatever ails you. Before diving into the initial recipes its expands on the fundamentals of cooking and goes into different methods of cooking from around the world.

HappyCow has been around as an online website since Finally, you can now download their app which covers over countries so you can find vegetarian and vegan restaurants near you with the touch of a button. Search the huge database for grocery stores, restaurants that are devoted to plant-based diets, and even find restaurants that have vegetarian-friendly menus. Plant-based meals require a little effort in the kitchen. This chopper includes 5 interchangeable blades that allow you to make anything from carrot sticks to french fries and even zucchini spaghetti.

While these may not be the best of the best proven diets for sleep apnea today, they might be tomorrow. Each of the following sleep apnea diet plans are either currently undergoing clinical trials or are known to promote eating loads of specific foods that help sleep apnea patients. Some of these diets may not be proven to work specifically for those with sleep apnea yet, but what they are known for is helping you shed pounds, which is a good start right there.

But a detox diet CAN be an excellent place to start before embarking on a proven diet. More on that in a moment…. A detox program is based on the theory that extensive fasting and large consumption of liquids will eliminate bodily-trapped toxins that contribute to excess weight.

The detox regimen is intended to let the body burn its own excess fat storage and thereby eliminate any trapped problem foods. This type of diet may help you to rapidly lose some weight, but it is very hard to sustain as it is very restrictive and leaves most people feeling hungry and fatigued. A detox program can help you jump start your weight loss before using one of the 6 best diets described above. You should not use this type of program if you have health issues such as diabetes or even thyroid problems without the okay from your doctor.

This diet may affect your blood sugar levels. Doing a detox too quickly to lose weight can be harder than other traditional diets. Use one or all of these tools to complete your end goal:. Total Wellness Cleanse is a reality-based detox program that has a more flexible approach than some. The first step focuses on stopping cravings, the second introduces solid food into your system like fruits and veggies, the third restores you cell function. Losing weight quickly through a detox such as this one could be a great starter for anyone with wanting to break the cycle of obstructive sleep apnea and being overweight.

Eating Clean guides you on your path to losing weight and resetting your body. Included is a day elimination detox, 2-week meal plan and a pantry list. Also included are loads of helpful tips and encouragement to keep you on track. The meals, most of which are vegan, keep you full and satisfied on your journey and can be used once the detox is completed as well.

Everyday Detox allows you to have a hands-on approach to your meals. You can get as granular as making your own coconut milk or opt to purchase those items pre-made. This book allows you to detox naturally with real food. The author provides practical strategies to an overall healthy approach to weight loss.

Keep in mind, many of the recipes in this cookbook require high-end kitchen equipment to complete, such as a high-speed blender. The Get Juiced App is a great help to those that want to commit to a detox diet for sleep apnea relief. Not only are there hundreds of recipes to choose from, but the app will create a grocery list to make your life easier.

Pick your juice randomly or opt to narrow down the search with ingredients you already have, or choose from one of their 6 collections. This Infuser Water Bottle might be just the fun twist you need to stay focused on your detox diet. Try different fruit, herb, and veggie combinations to entice you to drink lots of fluids and stay hydrated throughout the detox. Curb your desire for unhealthy sugary drinks while on the go or at home with a flavorful cucumber mint water, or blueberry lime water.

Dietitians have been touting the anti-aging effects and longer life expectancy associated with the Mediterranean diet for years. One thing is clear though: A few things that are off the table when it comes to the Mediterranean diet include:. You may be thinking, weight gain might be an issue with this diet due to some of the key ingredients like olive oil and nuts, which can be high in fat.

Many foods like olive oil and fish are low in saturated fats and can help reduce swelling. Garlic, onion, nuts and certain grains are all known for their anti-inflammatory properties which can help reduce snoring. These guides and tools will aid you on your journey to a slimmer waist and a snore-free night.

Relieving sleep apnea is possible with the Mediterranean diet and these tools will help keep you on track:. The eDiets online diet program is completely tailored to your individual needs. You will be paired with a mentor for motivation and accountability and have access to registered dietitians via online chat. Customize your chat by age, geography, lifestyle or even ailment, i. For those planning to lose weight with the Mediterranean diet and want a little extra encouragement from like-minded people, eDiets could be your best choice.

Michael Ozner has created a comprehensive guide to adopting the Mediterranean lifestyle. The author gives you a better understanding of how and why you should change your life with this diet. While most of the recipes are easy to fit into your daily routine, some can be more difficult. Plus, you may occasionally find yourself enjoying pushing yourself to complete a more complicated menu.

Each recipe has a detailed nutritional information and easy to follow directions. Even a novice cook can create great tasting meals quickly.