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In these areas often only 15 to 50 percent of young children between six months and 60 months of age do not have evidence of PEM. It is prepared by governments in a participatory process involving civil society and development partners, including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and should result in a comprehensive, country-based strategy for poverty reduction. Tana is followed, in length, by the Sabaki River, also known variously in its upland stretches as Athi and Galana, with a total length of km and a catchment area of 70 km 2. Nonetheless this crime persists. Over the past 35 years, therefore, the fishing industry has gradually evolved from a domestic consumption-oriented industry to an export-oriented industry with value-added processing being applied.
This, combined with factors such as corruption, foreign debt, concentrated wealth and so on, has contributed to poverty there. Much of the above was written around early Unfortunately, well into , the World Bank reported that the Latin American rich-poor gap is widening. There has been progress in closing the gender gap in income, and girls and young women had overtaken their male counterparts in education. However, inequality is very high.
The UK and US are often two of the more dynamic nations, economically and opportunities to make a very successful life is well within the realms of possibility. Yet, these two tend to have the worst levels of inequality amongst industrialized nations. Such levels of inequality implies that it is overly simplistic to blame it all on each individual or solely on government policy and white-collar corruption.
While ideological debates will always continue on the causes of inequality, both the political left and right agree that social cohesion social justice or family values, etc is suffering, risking the very fabric of society if it gets out of control.
He suggests that as well as a minimum wage, for the sake of social cohesion there should perhaps be a maximum wage , too. Crime and unhappiness stalk unequal societies. Inequality leads to instability, the last thing the country or world needs right now. Even the former hardline conservative head of the International Monetary Fund, Michel Camdessus, has come to the conclusion that the widening gaps between rich and poor within nations is morally outrageous, economically wasteful and potentially socially explosive.
Above subsistence levels, what undermines our sense of well-being most is not our absolute income levels, but how big the gaps are between us and our peers. Allowing the super-rich to live apart from society is as damaging in its own way as the exclusion of the poorest.
It seems, however, that neoliberal economic ideology may lead many to think inequality is not important. It looked into a scenario of what would happen in a few years if the growing inequality in the United Kingdom continued to widen. While the predictions of what would happen are always tough to make, the documentary noted some important issues that are already present, and that also parallel many parts of the world today.
In summary, the documentary noted the increasing alienation and exclusion of people in society where inequality was high, but if government tried to do something about it, they would face a powerful obstacle: The remainder of this subsection provides more details:.
Gated communities , while providing an opportunity to develop otherwise derelict areas, also represents a sign of growing inequality, whereby those who can afford to do so live in areas where security is paid for and managed to ensure undesirables are kept out.
While individuals are making understandable decisions regarding their security, there is the additional effect of cutting off from the rest of society, leading to consequences such as:. While this phenomenon is rarely discussed in the U.
These are times when the welfare state is failing people because it gives people a false sense of security and uses an element of coercion payment of taxes to pay for the services. Yet, at the same time, the documentary noted, what is making this situation more complicated is that the super rich are taking advantage of globalization and all the loop holes it provides, such as off-shore tax havens.
As a result, there is less the state is able to do, leading to further frustrations. At the same time, in U. This is in response to the increase in crime, an effect of inequality.
But this has important implications. However, policing is meant to be more than protecting things of material value; the police are supposed to have social and human concerns for society as well, something a private security firm neither is mandated to have, nor is usually created for. Due to the different roles, the costs, structures and accountability are also different. If crime is perceived to be increasing and the police are not seen as trusted, people can, and do take actions into their own hands.
Wealthier people of course can afford to take more measures. In theory then, one of the many things that makes up a functioning, stable and democratic society is an uncorrupted judicial system and law enforcement. Addressing the root causes of inequality would therefore seem to be where the challenge lies. The political costs of inequality are recognized and accepted as being too high. The economic costs of fighting effects are also high.
Citing some research, the BBC also noted that for each dollar spent on poverty causes, seven dollars was saved on consequences. Unfortunately, governments are in a difficult situation, because they can try to address inequality, but they will anger the rich.
In May , the BBC aired another documentary related to inequality, called The Experiment , where they showed in detail how inequality can turn good people to evil.
Inequality is also characterized by a concentration of wealth, which means a concentration of political power. Historically, one of the main reasons for continued poverty has been in order to maintain this power. In the developing world, there is a pattern of inequality caused by the powerful subjugating the poor and keeping them dependent.
Outside influence is often a large factor and access to trade and resources is the usual cause. It is often asked why the people of these countries do not stand up for themselves. In most cases when they do, they face incredible and often violent oppression from their ruling elites and from outsiders who see their national interests threatened. Everyone has the right to work, to just and favourable conditions of work and to protection for himself and his family [and] an existence worthy of human dignity … Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well being of himself and his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care.
And contrast that with the following around the same time, from a key superpower that helped create the United Nations. Our real task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts.
The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better. We should make a careful study to see what parts of the Pacific and Far Eastern world are absolutely vital to our security, and we should concentrate our policy on seeing to it that those areas remain in hands which we can control or rely on.
While it is recognized that strong institutions, a functioning and non-corrupt democracy, an impartial media, equitable distribution of land and a well structured judicial system and other such factors , etc. Often, it can be a very large sector. For example, those likely to lose out in such an equalizing effect are the rich, elite power holders. This is a pattern seen throughout history.
Take for example the medieval days of Europe where the wealthy of the time controlled land via a feudal ruling system and hence impoverished the common people intentionally. Trading superiority was maintained by raiding and plundering areas deemed as a threat. Summarizing from the works of the Institute for Economic Democracy:.
The discovery of the Americas, expansion of trade routes etc brought much wealth to these centers of empire which helped fuel the industrial revolution, which required even more resources and wealth to be appropriated, to continue this growth. Mass luxury consumption in Europe expanded as well as a result of the increased production from the industrial revolution. But this had a further negative impact on the colonized nations, the country side , or the resource-providers.
For example, to keep profits up and costs down, they used slavery where they could, sometimes transferring people across continents, introducing others when indigenous populations had either been wiped out, decimated, or proved too resistant in some way.
Europeans also carved out artificial borders to reflect their territorial acquisitions, sometimes bringing different groups of people into the same borders that had never been forced to live together in such short times. Some poorer countries today still suffer the effects of this. Many Europeans and their descendants around the world have tried to look back at history and ask how it was that Europe and the West prospered and rose to such prominence.
The late Professor J. Race and Christianity in particular, Protestantism were often claimed to be a factor, too. Blaut Guilford Press, Except for religious conflicts and the petty wars of feudal lords, wars are primarily fought over resources and trade. Is there any man, is there any woman, let me say any child here that does not know that the seed of war in the modern world is industrial and commercial rivalry? Plundering the countryside to maintain dominance and control of the wealth-producing process has been an age-old process.
These mercantilist processes continue today. Those policies of plunder by raid have continued, but include a more sophisticated plunder by trade:. The powerful and cunning had learned to plunder by trade centuries ago and societies ever since have been caught in the trap of those unequal trades. Once unequal trades were in place, restructuring to equal trade would mean the severing of arteries of commerce which provide the higher standard of living for the dominant society and collapse of those living standards would almost certainly trigger open revolt.
The world is trapped in that pattern of unequal trades yet today. The geopolitical events of the post World War II era have been crucial for their impacts on poverty and most other issues. Virtually the entire colonial world was breaking free, its resources would be turned to the care of its own people, and those resources could no longer be siphoned to the old imperial-centers-of-capital for a fraction of their value.
What Western nations were observing, of course, was the same potential loss of the resources and markets of their countryside as the cities of Europe had experienced centuries earlier. The domestic prosperity worried about was only their own and the constantly expanding trade were unequal trades maintaining the prosperity of the developed world and the impoverishment of the undeveloped world as the imperial-centers-of-capital siphoned the natural wealth of their countryside to themselves.
The managers-of-state had to avert that crisis. While European nations are now more cooperative amongst themselves in comparison to the horrors of World War II and the U. Prosperity for a few has increased, as has poverty for the majority. Structural Adjustment SAP , as described in a previous section on this web site, is an example of that dependency. Neoliberal economic ideology has been almost blindly prescribed to poor countries to open up their economies. The idea is that opening markets for foreign investment will also help improve exports and contribute to economic growth.
Cutting back on social spending e. But what ends up happening is the poorer nations lose their space to develop their own policies and local businesses end up competing with well-established multinationals, sometimes themselves subsidized hinting a more mercantilist economic policy for the rich, even though free market capitalism is the claim and the prescription for others.
Hence, many back the economic neoliberal policies without realizing the background to it. It is another example that while international trade and globalization is what probably most would like to see, the reality of it is that it is not matching the rhetoric that is broadcast.
The Third World remains poor because the powerful strive to dominate every choke-point of commerce. One key choke-point is political control through the co-respective support of local elites. Where loyalty is lacking, money will be spent to purchase it. If a government cannot be bought or otherwise controlled, corrupt groups will be financed and armed to overthrow that government and, in extreme cases, another country will be financed to attack and defeat it. An enormous proportion of the income of nations and individuals, nowadays, is blood money: Therefore the most prudent nation is the nation which is in the best position to levy blackmail.
To find out more about the political dimensions of the economy of the world and to see the detailed links between history how it is both told and repeated , politics that are always at play and the effects on the economy the world over, visit the Institute for Economic Democracy web site.
It provides much more in-depth research into these backgrounds and in far more detail than what I have summarized above. With this in mind, why would so many people not oppose such things? There are many reasons, including:. The smart way to keep people passive and obedient is to strictly limit the spectrum of acceptable opinion, but allow very lively debate within that spectrum—even encourage the more critical and dissident views. Besides the necessity of a job or other source of income for survival, people need to feel that they are good and useful to society.
Few even admit, even to themselves, that their hard work may not be fully productive. This emotional shield requires most people to say with equal sincerity that those on welfare are lazy, ignorant, and nonfunctional.
Those above the poverty level vigorously insist that they are honest and productive and fulfill a social need. It is important to their emotional well-being that they believe this.
They dare not acknowledge that their segment of the economy may have 30 to 70 percent more workers than necessary or that the displaced should have a relatively equal share of jobs and income. This would expose their redundancy and, under current social rules, undermine their moral claim to their share. Such an admission could lead to the loss of their economic niche in society.
They would then have to find another territory within the economy or drop into poverty themselves. Smith, quoted above, also points out and details in his work how we have moved from plunder by raid to plunder by trade in recent centuries. And societies are so accustomed to long struggles for improved living standards that to think it could be done much faster seems irrational. Governments now do this more than ever because the poor are rooted, stationary, slow ; whereas the big money is nomadic and travels at the speed of bytes.
Stationary money of local businesses, professionals, wage and salary earners will be taxed to the limit for the simple reason that it can be got at. The World Bank is a major international institution involved in poverty and development. It has the capacity to lend a lot of money and expertise to developing countries and advise on development matters. The Bank regards this as its flagship report.
Most mainstream economists use this report in some way or form, and it is one of the few reports on development that the US mainstream media reports on because it usually shows the US, and its policies that it prescribes to the rest of the world, in a favorable light. For the report, Ravi Kanbur, a professor from Cornell University had been asked to lead up the report team. Kanbur won respect from NGO circles as he tried to be inclusive and take in a wide range of views, something the Bank has been criticized for not doing which is a problem in itself!
However, as the report was to be published, he resigned because he was unreasonably pressured by the Bank to tone down sections on globalization, which, amongst other things called for developing nations to accept market neoliberalism cautiously.
However, it is not clear how it relates to goal choice at village level , which will be further analyzed together with the SAFANSI-II financed qualitative survey see below.
The mid-term IE, together with the qualitative survey, is expected to influence policies and support SHD scale up. The objective of this grant is to improve the evidence base and understanding of the design and process of Sunaula Hazar Din SHD, Community Action for Nutrition Project at the community level. Paying special attention to gender and social inclusion perspectives e.
Key research questions include how goals are selected at the community level; what roles coaches play in achieving goals; how having a female leader influences the RRA outcomes; how the communities perceive success and failure of the initiatives; and why certain groups succeed and others fail.
Given the mega-earthquake that hit the country in April , the study questions and methodologies will take into account the influence the earthquake might have had on the approach and intended outcomes.
Prior to the earthquake, Nuwakot was categorized as minimally food insecure with a pre-existing global acute malnutrition prevalence of 9. However, after the earthquake, the district was classified as one of the most food insecure districts in Nepal, because agricultural production has been interfered by displacement of families, damage to land, and disruption of livelihood supply chains. Adolescent nutrition in Pakistan: The objective of this work will be to provide concrete policy and program options to improve adolescent nutrition in Pakistan, based on evidence of the magnitude and distribution of nutrition problems, their determinants and potential factors that could facilitate or impede progress.
This project aims to improve the demand and uptake of health and nutrition services and promote key behaviors conducive to positive nutritional outcomes in Punjab pilot districts.
The technical support will ensure that the design parameters and processes meet the technical standards along the results chain. Sohail Saeed Abbasi and Yoonyoung Cho.
This project will aim to establish a monitoring system for nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive public expenditure and embed it within the public financial management systems in Pakistan. The project will work closely with the Controller General of Accounts, the institutional custodian of the public financial management system, to establish a system of tracking nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive expenditure.
The overall development goal of this project is to strengthen the allocative and technical efficiencies for country-led planning, budgeting, and prioritization of nutrition interventions through health, nutrition, population, social protection, water, sanitation and hygiene WASH , education, and agriculture and rural development programs in up to 5 high-burden countries in South Asia i.
Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka , and thereby enhance the impact of national and international investments.
Second, it will develop options to address the challenges identified, make policy and programmatic recommendations and advocate for their adoption. The grant development objective of the INPARD program is to investigate whether a multi-sectoral rural development program can be utilized to deliver nutrition promotion intervention within rural Sri Lanka and whether this is effective in improving nutrition outcomes.
INPARD supported nutrition promotion activities implemented through multi-sectoral government stakeholders, including health, agriculture, rural development, administration, education, fisheries and Samurdhi poverty eradication national program. It is envisaged that the evaluation, composed of household survey and multi-stakeholder focus group discussions, is to build evidence to demonstrate linkages between health and nutrition outcomes and their upstream determinants, such as socioeconomic context, education, occupation, and income.
The team completed data collection, and data are being analyzed. The results will be shared at two regional workshops with multi-sectoral teams consisting of consists of stakeholders from health, agriculture, rural development, administration, education, fisheries and Samurdhi poverty eradication national program , amongst others , and presented at a South Asian Symposium later in Schmitt , Seenithamby Manoharan.
Building Effective Nutrition Communication through Partnerships: The grant a creates an evidence based public policy dialogue via offline and online communication platforms on estate nutrition issues to lead to the development of an estate nutrition plan of action; and b develops a collaborative network of public, private and NGO partners engaged in advocacy, community mobilization and ICT to take forward the development and implementation of an estate nutrition plan of action.
Over the last decades, studies have shown that the estate nutrition status is lagging behind the rest of the country, despite many nutrition and health interventions.
In previous round , the SAFANSI-financed study has identified gaps in multi-sectoral approaches to nutrition interventions, suggesting improved knowledge and understanding of the multi-sectoral determinants of nutrition. This grant supports mapping of key stakeholders and pilot innovative communication outreach in Estate, using ICT and social media. The project will assess whether a larger agriculture project could be integrated into multi-sectoral interventions and to improve the nutritional status of individual farmers, their families and communities.
It will add a significant amount of new evidence in identifying challenges for the implementation of common interventions and possible solutions to address them. This study aims to involve academia, a number of government ministries along with the media. Events will be organized for different levels of interactions from top to bottom at village , district, provincial and national levels.
The objective is to identify successful behaviors of positive deviants that could enable estate sector residents to achieve better nutrition outcomes. While the majority of nutrition studies and interventions tend to focus on problems and barriers that prevent children from reaching their full potential, the proposed positive deviance PD project will enable the key stakeholders to: You may explore this research below.
An Investment Framework for Nutrition in Afghanistan: A rapid assessment of iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy through the basic package of health services. Raising nutrition awareness among young women in Afghanistan through the female youth employment initiative. Nutrition information with the pilot cash transfer program.
Increasing the nutritional impact of the National Horticulture and Livestock Productivity project. The National Solidarity Programme: Using cash cards to make better nutrition choices in Bangladesh PDF. Dynamics of rural growth in Bangladesh: Early childhood diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. Dynamics of Rural Growth in Bangladesh: Improved nutrition through agricultural extension and advisory services in India. A targeted rural livelihoods program in Orissa. Food and nutrition security in tribal areas of India.
Promoting agriculture nutrition convergence through participatory extension videos. Promoting positive nutrition behavior in Bihar, India. Digital Green Agriculture-Nutrition Convergence: Managing food price volatility in a large open country: Impacting food security and nutrition outcomes through strengthening livelihoods: Integrating nutrition in rural livelihoods and value chains and the role of producer companies. Jeevika in rural Bihar: A picture is worth a thousand words.
What does the Social Observatory Do? Recasting culture to undo gender: The Distributional Consequences of Group Procurement: Participatory Tracking- Customizing Visualizations.
Improving nutrition in communities through behavior change: Nepal's scaling-up nutrition initiative technical assistance Pakistan. Child nutritional outcomes and community-based health service provision Regional. Integrating promotion and rural development. Sanjeevi, an enterprising solution for food and nutrition. The diets of young children in South Asia: How can we make healthy food available for the poor? Leave this field blank.
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